Abu Mansur al-Maturidi

9th and 10th-century Muslim theologian
Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī
Imammaturidi.jpg
Tomb-shrine of Imam al-Māturīdī, Samarkand
Scholastic theologian, Jurist;
Leader of Guidance (Imām al-Hudā)
Shaykh al-Islām
Diver into the Sea of Knowledge
Aʿraf al-nās bi-madhāhib Abī Ḥanīfa
Venerated inSunnī Islam[1]
Major shrineTomb of Imam al-Māturīdī, Samarkand
Major worksKitab al-Tawhid
Ta'wilat Ahl al-Sunnah
Imam

Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī
Abu Mansur al-Maturidi.jpg
Personal
Born853 (238 H)[2]
Samarkand
Died944 (aged 90–91) (333 H)[2]
Samarkand, Samanid Empire
ReligionIslam
Muslim leader
Influenced by
Influenced
  • the entire Māturīdī school

Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥanafī al-Māturīdī al-Samarḳandī[1] (Persian: أبو منصور محمد بن محمد بن محمود الماتریدي السمرقندي الحنفي; 853–944 CE), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently referred to as Imām al-Māturīdī by Sunnī Muslims, was a Persian Muslim scholar of Ḥanafī jurisprudence, scriptural exegete, reformer (mujaddid), and scholastic theologian (mutakallim), renowned for being the eponymous founder of the Māturīdī school of Islamic theology,[1][3][4][5][6] which became the dominant Sunnī school of Islamic theology in Central Asia,[1] and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the theological school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.[1]

He was from a place called Māturīd or Māturīt in Samarqand (today Uzbekistan), and was known during his lifetime as Shaykh al-Islām and Imām al-Hudā ("Leader of Right Guidance").[1] He was one of the two foremost Imams of the Ashʿarite school in his time, along with its founder Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī in matters of theological inquiry.[7] In contrast to his master al-Ashʿarī, who was a Shāfiʿī jurist, al-Māturīdī adhered to the eponymous school of jurisprudence founded by Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān, and to his creed (ʿaqīdah) as transmitted and elaborated by the Ḥanafī Muslim theologians of Balkh and Transoxania.[1] It was this theological doctrine which al-Māturīdī codified, systematized, and used to refute not only the opinions of the Muʿtazilites, the Karramites, and other heterodox groups, but also non-Islamic theologies such as those of Chalcedonian Christianity, Miaphysitism, Manichaeanism, Marcionism, and Bardaisanism.[8]

Name

Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī's epithet or nisba refers to Māturīd or Māturīt, a locality in Samarqand (today Uzbekistan).[1]

Teachers

He studied under his teachers, Muhammad bin Muqatil al-Razi (d. 248 H/ 662 CE), Abu Nasr al-Ayadi "al-Faqih al-Samarqandi" (d. 260 H?), Nusayr bin Yahya al-Balkhi (d. 268 H/ 881 CE), and Abu Bakr al-Juzjani (d. 250 H?).[9][10][11][7] He narrated Abu Hanifa's Kitab al-Alim wa Mut'alim from Abu Bakr al-Juzjani, who narrated it from Muhammad ibn Muqatil ar-Razi (and Abu Sulayman al-Juzjani).[9][12][13]

His chains to Abu Hanifa are given as follows:[14][15]

  1. He took from Muhammad bin Muqatil al-Razi (d. 248 H), from Muhammad al-Shaybani (d. 189 H), from Abu Hanifa (d. 150 H).
  2. He took from Abu Nasr al-Ayadi (d. 260 H?),[10] Nusayr al-Balkhi (d. 268 H) and Abu Bakr al-Juzjani (d. 250 H?),[10] who all took from Abu Sulayman al-Juzjani (d. 200 H?),[10] who took from both Muhammad al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf (d. 182 H), who both took from Abu Hanifa.
  3. He took from Muhammad bin Muqatil al-Razi and Nusayr al-Balkhi, who additionally both took from Abu Muti al-Hakam al-Balkhi (d. 199 H) and Abu Muqatil Hafs al-Samarqandi (d. 208 H), who both took from Abu Hanifa.
  4. He took from Abu Nasr al-Ayadi, who took from Abu Ahmad bin Ishaq al-Juzjani (died mid- third century), who took directly from Muhammad al-Shaybani, who took from Abu Hanifa.

Students

Among his students: Ali bin Said Abu al-Hasan al-Rustughfani, Abu Muhammad Abdal-Karim bin Musa bin Isa al-Bazdawi, and Abu al-Qasim al-Hakim al-Samarqandi.[7]

Life

Al‑Maturidi was born at Maturid, a village or quarter in the neighbourhood of Samarkand. Relatively little is known about the life of Maturidi, as the sources available "do not read as biographies, but rather as lists of works that have been enlarged upon by brief statements on his personage and a few words of praise."[16] What is evident, however, is that the theologian lived the life of a pure scholar, as "nothing indicates that he held any public office, nor that he possessed more disciples, popularity, or association with the Sāmānid court of Bukhārā than anyone else."[16] It is accepted, moreover, that Maturidi had two principal teachers, namely Abū Bakr al-Jūzjānī and Abū Naṣr Aḥmad b. al-ʿAbbās al-ʿIyāḍī (d. ca. 874–892), both of whom played significant roles in the shaping of Maturidi's theological views.[16] Maturidi is said to have lived the life of an ascetic (zāhid),[17] and various sources attribute numerous miracles (karāmāt) to him.[17] Although he is not usually considered a mystic, it is nevertheless very possible that Maturidi had some interaction with the Sufis of his area, as "Hanafite theology in the region could not always be sharply separated from mystical tendencies,"[17] and many of the most important Hanafi jurists of the area were also Sufi mystics.[17]

Theology

Maturidi defined faith (īmān) as taṣdīḳ bi ’l-ḳalb or "inner assent, expressed by verbal confession (ịḳrār bi ’l-lisān)."[18] For Maturidi, moreover, Islamic works (aʿmāl) are not a part of faith.[18] Additionally, Maturidi held that "faith cannot decrease nor increase in substance, though it may be said to increase through renewal and repetition."[18]

Maturidi supported using allegorical interpretation with respect to the anthropomorphic expressions in the Quran, though he rejected many of the interpretations the Mutazilites would reach using this method.[1] In other instances, Maturidi espoused using the traditionalist bilā kayf method of reading scripture, which insisted on "unquestioning acceptance of the revealed text."[1] Maturidi further refuted the Mutazilites in his defense of the Attributes of God "as real and eternally subsisting" in the Essence of God (ḳāʾima bi ’l-d̲h̲āt).[1] His chief theological divergence from Ashʿarī was that he held the attributes of essence and action to be "equally eternal and subsistent in the Divine Essence."[1] Thus, "he insisted that the expressions 'God is eternally the Creator' and 'God has been creating from eternity (lam yazal k̲h̲āliḳan)' are equally valid, even though the created world is temporal."[1] Furthermore, Maturidi staunchly defended the Beatific Vision (ruʾya, literally "vision [of God]") against the Mutazilites, but "consistently rejected the possibility of idrāk, which he understood as grasping, of God by the eyes."[1]

Contrary to popular assumption, Al-Maturidi was not a student of Al-Ash'ari. The historian al-Bayadi (d. 1078 H) emphasised this saying, "Maturidi is not Ash'ari's follower, as many people would tend to think. He had upheld Sunni Islam long before Ashari, he was a scholar to thoroughly explain and systematically develop Abu Hanifa's and his followers' school".[9][19]

Work

When Maturidi was growing up there was an emerging reaction[20] against some schools within Islam, notably Mu'tazilis, Qarmati, and Shi'a. Maturidi, with other two preeminent scholars,[21] wrote especially on the creed of Islam, the other two being Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari in Iraq, and Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi in Egypt.[22]

While Al-Ash'ari were Sunni together with Maturidi, he constructed his own theology diverging slightly from Abu Hanifa's school. Gimaret argued that Al-Ash'ari enunciated that God creates the individual's power (qudra), will, and the actual act,[23] which according to Hye, gives way to a fatalist school of theology, which was later put in a consolidated form by Al Ghazali.[24] According to Encyclopædia Britannica however, Al-Ashari held the doctrine of Kasb as an explanation for how free will and predestination can be reconciled.[25] Maturidi, followed in Abu Hanifa's footsteps, and presented the "notion that God was the creator of man's acts, although man possessed his own capacity and will to act".[26] Maturidi and Al-Ash'ari also separated from each other in the issue of the attributes of God,[27] as well as some other minor issues.

Later, with the impact of Turkic society states such as Great Seljuq Empire[28] and Ottoman Empire,[29] Hanafi-Maturidi school spread to greater areas where the Hanafi school of law is prevalent, such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia, South Asia, Balkan, Russia, China, Caucasus and Turkey.

Maturidi had immense knowledge of dualist beliefs (Sanawiyya) and of other old Persian religions. His Kitāb al-Tawḥīd in this way has become a primary source for modern researchers with its rich materials about Iranian Manicheanism (Mâniyya), a group of Brahmans (Barähima), and some controversial personalities such as Ibn al-Rawandi, Abu Isa al-Warraq, and Muhammad b. Shabib.[30][31]

Legacy and veneration

Although there was in the medieval period "a tendency to suppress Maturidi's name and to put Ashʿarī forward as the champion of Islam against all heretics,"[32] except in Transoxiana, Maturidism gradually "came to be widely recognised as the second orthodox Sunni theological school besides" Ashʿarīsm.[33] It is evident from the surviving fifteenth-century accounts of Maturidi's tomb in the cemetery of Jākardīza in Samarkand that the theologian's tomb was "visited ... and held in honor for a long time" throughout the medieval period.[34] This veneration of the theologian seems to have arisen out of traditions preserved by several later scholars which detailed Maturidi's wisdom and spiritual abilities. For example, Abul Muīn al-Nasafī (d. 1114) stated that Maturidi's spiritual gifts were "immeasurably plentiful"[17] and that "God singled him out with miracles (kāramāt), gifts of grace (mawāhib), divine assistance (tawfiq), and guidance (irshād, tashdīd)."[17]

Contemporary Salafism and Wahhabism, however, tends to be very critical of Maturidi's legacy in Sunni Islam due to their aversion towards using any rational thought in matters of theology, which they deem to be heretical,[1] despite this antagonism being a position that conflicts with the consensus of Sunnism throughout history.[1][35] As such, it is often said that mainstream "orthodox Sunnism" constitutes the followers of the theological traditions of Maturidi and Ashʿarī,[1][36] while Salafism and Wahhabism have often been interpreted by the proponents of the two major schools to be minority splinter theological traditions opposed to the mainstream.[1][35] Furthermore, the minor theoretical differences between the theological formulations of Maturidi and Ashʿarī are often deemed by their respective followers to be superficial rather than real,[36] whence "the two schools are equally orthodox" in traditional Sunnism.[36] The traditional Sunni point of view is summarized in the words of the twentieth-century Islamic publisher Munīr ʿAbduh Agha, who stated: "There is not much [doctrinal] difference between the Ashʿarīs and Māturīdīs, hence both groups are now called People of the Sunna and the Community."[37]

Writings

  • Kitab al-Tawhid ('Book of Monotheism')
  • Ta'wilat Ahl al-Sunnah or Ta'wilat al-Qur'an ('Book of the Interpretations of the Quran')
  • Kitāb Radd Awa'il al-Adilla, a refutation of a Mu'tazili book
  • Radd al-Tahdhib fi al-Jadal, another refutation of a Mu'tazili book
  • Kitāb Bayan Awham al-Mu'tazila ('Book of Exposition of the Errors of Mu'tazila)
  • Kitāb al-Maqalat
  • Ma'akhidh al-Shara'i' in Usul al-Fiqh
  • Al-Jadal fi Usul al-Fiqh
  • Radd al-Usul al-Khamsa, a refutation of Abu Muhammad al-Bahili's exposition of the Five Principles of the Mu'tazila
  • Radd al-Imama, a refutation of the Shi'i conception of the office of Imam;
  • Al-Radd 'ala Usul al-Qaramita
  • Radd Wa'id al-Fussaq, a refutation of the Mu'tazili doctrine that all grave sinners will be eternally in hell fire.

See also

References

Notes

Sources

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s MacDonald, D. B. (2012) [1936]. "Māturīdī". In Houtsma, M. Th.; Arnold, T. W.; Basset, R.; Hartmann, R. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition. Vol. 3. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/2214-871X_ei1_SIM_4608. ISBN 9789004082656.
  2. ^ a b Nasir, Sahilun A. "The Epistemology of Kalam of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi." Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies 43.2 (2005): 349-365.
  3. ^ Rudolph, Ulrich (2016) [2014]. "Part I: Islamic Theologies during the Formative and the Early Middle period – Ḥanafī Theological Tradition and Māturīdism". In Schmidtke, Sabine (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 280–296. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199696703.013.023. ISBN 9780199696703. LCCN 2016935488.
  4. ^ Alpyağıl, Recep (28 November 2016). "Māturīdī". Oxford Bibliographies – Islamic Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0232. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  5. ^ Rudolph, Ulrich (2015). "An Outline of al-Māturīdī's Teachings". Al-Māturīdī and the Development of Sunnī Theology in Samarqand. Islamic History and Civilization. Vol. 100. Translated by Adem, Rodrigo. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 231–312. doi:10.1163/9789004261846_010. ISBN 978-90-04-26184-6. ISSN 0929-2403. LCCN 2014034960.
  6. ^ Henderson, John B. (1998). "The Making of Orthodoxies". The Construction of Orthodoxy and Heresy: Neo-Confucian, Islamic, Jewish, and Early Christian Patterns. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. pp. 55–58. ISBN 978-0-7914-3760-5.
  7. ^ a b c Gibril Fouad Haddad (2015). The Biographies of the Elite Lives of the Scholars, Imams and Hadith Masters. Zulfiqar Ayub. p. 141.
  8. ^ G. Vajda, Le témoignage d’al-Māturīdī sur la doctrine des Manichéens, des Daysanites et des Marcionites, in Arabica, xii [1966], 1–38, 113–28
  9. ^ a b c Akimkhanov, Askar Bolatbekovich, et al. "Principles of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Central Asian Islamic theologian preoccupied with the question of the relation between the Iman/credo and the action in Islam." European Journal of Science and Theology 12.6 (2016): 165-176.
  10. ^ a b c d Çandur, Yasemin. Ebû Bekir Ahmed b. İshak el-Cûzcânî ve Cûzcâniyye. MS thesis. Uludağ Üniversitesi, 2015. p.6
  11. ^ Wan Ali, Wan Zailan Kamaruddin. "Aliran al-Maturidi dan al-Maturidiyyah dalam dunia Islam." Jurnal Usuluddin 8.1 (1998): 81-96.
  12. ^ Rudolph, Ulrich. Al-Māturīdī und die sunnitische Theologie in Samarkand. Vol. 30. Brill, 1997.
  13. ^ Çandur, Yasemin. Ebû Bekir Ahmed b. İshak el-Cûzcânî ve Cûzcâniyye. MS thesis. Uludağ Üniversitesi, 2015.
  14. ^ Aisyah, Dollah. Kaedah pentakwilan Al-Qur'an: Kajian perbandingan antara Al-Maturidi (M: 944) dan Al-Tabari (M: 923)/Aisyah binti [email protected] Abdullah. Diss. University of Malaya, 2015. p.75 - transmission diagrams A, B and C correspond to 1, 2 and 3 below.
  15. ^ Çandur, Yasemin. Ebû Bekir Ahmed b. İshak el-Cûzcânî ve Cûzcâniyye. MS thesis. Uludağ Üniversitesi, 2015. pp. 22-25 - the diagram on page 22 corresponds with 4 below, diagrams on pages 24 and 25 correspond to 2, 3 below respectively. The chain on page 23 was weakened by the researcher so has not been quoted.
  16. ^ a b c Ulrich Rudolph, Al-Māturīdī and the Development of Sunnī Theology in Samarqand, trans. Rodrigo Adem (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2015), p. 125
  17. ^ a b c d e f Ulrich Rudolph, Al-Māturīdī and the Development of Sunnī Theology in Samarqand, trans. Rodrigo Adem (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2015), p. 131
  18. ^ a b c Madelung, W., “al-Māturīdī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
  19. ^ İskenderoğlu, Muammer. "Al-Māturīdī and the Development of Sunnī Theology in Samarqand." (2016): 336-338.
  20. ^ Williams, J. A. (1994). The word of Islam. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 145.
  21. ^ Ali, A. (1963). Maturidism. In Sharif, p. 260. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
  22. ^ Ali, A. (1963). Maturidism. In Sharif, p. 259. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
  23. ^ Gimaret, D. (1980). The´ories de L’Acte Humain en The´ologie Musulmane. Paris: J. Vrin.
  24. ^ Hye, M. A. (1963). Ash'arism. In Sharif, p. 226. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
  25. ^ "Kasb". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  26. ^ Shah, M. (2006). Later Developments. In Meri, J. W. (Ed.),Medieval Islamic civilization: an encyclopedia, (Vol. 1), (p. 640). New York:Routledge.
  27. ^ Lucas, S. C.(2006). Sunni Theological Schools. In Meri, J. W. (Ed.),Medieval Islamic civilization: an encyclopedia, (Vol. 1), (p. 809). New York:Routledge.
  28. ^ Hughes, A. (2004). Ash'arites, Ash'aria. In Martin, R. C. et al. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, (Vol. 1), (pp. 83–84). New York: Macmillan Reference USA
  29. ^ DeWeese, D. (2004). Central Asian Culture and Islam. In Martin, R. C. et al. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, (Vol. 1), (p. 139). New York: Macmillan Reference USA
  30. ^ See G. Vajda, "Le Témoignage d'al-Maturidi sur la doctrine des manichéens, des daysanites et des rnarcionites", Arabica, 13 (1966), pp. 1–38; Guy Mannot, "Matoridi et le manichéisme", Melanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales de Caire, 13 (1977), pp. 39–66; Sarah Stroumsa, "The Barahima in Early Kalam", Jarusalem Studies In Arable and Islam, 6 (1985), pp. 229–241; Josef van Ess, "al-Farabi and Ibn al-Rewandi", Hamdard Islamicus, 3/4 (Winter 1980), pp. 3–15; J. Meric Pessagno, "The Reconstruction of the Thought of Muhammad Ibn Shabib", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 104/3 (1984), pp. 445–453.
  31. ^ The Authenticity of the Manuscript of Maturidi's Kitäb al-Tawhid, by M. Sait Özervarli, 1997. (Retrieved on: 23 December 2008)
  32. ^ Macdonald, D. B., “Māturīdī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913–1936), Edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T.W. Arnold, R. Basset, R. Hartmann.
  33. ^ Madelung, W., “Māturīdiyya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
  34. ^ Ulrich Rudolph, Al-Māturīdī and the Development of Sunnī Theology in Samarqand, trans. Rodrigo Adem (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2015), p. 130
  35. ^ a b Thomas, David, “Al-Māturīdī”, in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 – 1500, General Editor David Thomas.
  36. ^ a b c Macdonald, D. B., “Māturīdī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913–1936), Edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T.W. Arnold, R. Basset, R. Hartmann.
  37. ^ Munīr ʿAbduh Agha, Namudhaj min al-A`mal al-Khayriyya, p. 134

Further reading

Primary

  • Bazdawī, Uṣūl al-dīn, ed. H. P. Linss, Cairo 1383/1963, index s.v.
  • Abu ’l-Muʿīn al-Nasafī, Tabṣirat al-adilla, quoted in Muḥammad b. Tāwīt al-Ṭānd̲j̲ī, Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī, in IFD, iv/1-2 (1955), 1–12
  • Ibn Abi ’l-Wafāʾ, al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-muḍīʾa, Ḥaydarābād 1332/1914, ii, 130-1
  • Bayāḍī, Is̲h̲ārāt al-marām, ed. Yūsuf ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, Cairo 1368/1949, 23
  • Zabīdī, Itḥāf al-sāda, Cairo n.d., ii, 5
  • Laknawī, al-Fawāʾid al-bahiyya, Cairo 1924, 195

Secondary

  • M. Allard, Le problème des attributs divins dans la doctrine d’al-Ašʿarī, Beirut 1965, 419–27
  • M. Götz, "Māturīdī und sein Kitāb Taʾwīlāt al-Qurʾān," in Isl., xli (1965), 27–70
  • H. Daiber, "Zur Erstausgabe von al-Māturīdī, Kitāb al-Tauḥīd," in Isl., lii (1975), 299–313

Online

  • Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad al-Māturīdī: Muslim theologian, in Encyclopædia Britannica Online, by The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica and Adam Zeidan

External links

  • (in English) Biography of Imâm Al Mâturîdî by Shaykh GF Haddâd
  • (in French) Biography of Imâm Al Mâturîdî by at-tawhid.net
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  • Abu Hanifa (founder of the school; 699–767)
  • Abu Yusuf (738–798)
  • Ibn al-Mubarak (726–797)
  • Muhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)
  • Yahya ibn Ma'in (774–807)
  • Waki' ibn al-Jarrah (d. 812)
3rd/9th
4th/10th
  • Al-Tahawi (843–933)
  • Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944)
  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi (b. 874)
  • Al-Jassas (917-981)
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi (944-983)
5th/11th
  • Abu al-Husayn al-Basri (d. 1044)
  • Ali Hujwiri (1009-1072)
  • Al-Bazdawi (1010-1089)
  • Al-Sarakhsi (d. 1090)
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi (1030-1100)
  • Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi (d. 1115)
6th/12th
7th/13th
  • Rumi (1207-1273)
  • Jalaluddin Tabrizi (d. 1228)
  • Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki (1173-1235)
  • Mu'in al-Din Chishti (1143-1236)
  • Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1173-1266)
  • Abu Tawwama (d. 1300)
  • Abu al-Barakat al-Nasafi (d. 1310)
8th/14th
  • Nizamuddin Auliya (1238-1325)
  • Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i (d. 1342)
  • Shah Jalal Mujarrad (1271-1346)
  • Uthman Siraj ad-Din (1258-1357)
  • Ala al-Haq (1301-1384)
  • Jahaniyan Jahangasht (1308-1384)
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti (d. 1384)
  • Al-Taftazani (1322-1390)
  • Ibn Abi al-Izz (1331-1390)
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi (1350-1410)
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani (1339-1414)
9th/15th
  • Nur Qutb Alam (d. 1416)
  • Shams al-Din al-Fanari (1350-1431)
  • 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari (1377-1438)
  • Badr al-Din al-Ayni (1361-1451)
  • Al-Kamal ibn al-Humam (1388-1457)
  • Ali Qushji (1403-1474)
  • Khidr Bey (b. 1407)
10th/16th
  • Ibn Kemal (1468-1536)
  • Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī (1460-1549)
  • Usman Bengali (d. 1573)
  • Muhammad Birgivi (1522-1573)
  • Ebussuud Efendi (1490-1574)
  • Ali al-Qari (d. 1606)
11th/17th
  • Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624)
  • 'Abd al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (1551-1642)
  • Kâtip Çelebi (1609-1657)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Khafaji (1569-1659)
  • Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (1585-1671)
  • Syed Rafi Mohammad (d. 1679)
  • Mir Zahid Harawi (d. 1689)
  • Syed Inayatullah (d. 1713)
12th/18th
  • Shah Abdur Rahim (1644-1719)
  • Muhammad Salih Bengali (fl. 1700s)
  • Syed Hayatullah (d. 1722)
  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (1641-1731)
  • Syed Mohammad Zaman (d. 1756)
  • Hashim Thattvi (1692-1761)
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762)
  • Shah Nuri Bengali (died 1785)
  • Murtada al-Zabidi (1732-1790)
  • Sanaullah Panipati (1730-1810)
  • Mawlana Murad (fl. 1790s)
  • Syed Mohammad Rafi (d. 1803)
  • Majduddin (d. 1813)
13th/19th
  • Shah Abdul Aziz (1746-1824)
  • Syed Ahmad Barelvi (1786-1831)
  • Ibn Abidin (1784-1836)
  • Haji Shariatullah (1781-1840)
  • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi (1796-1861)
  • Dudu Miyan (1819-1862)
  • Karamat Ali Jaunpuri (1800-1873)
  • Al-Maydani (1807-1861)
  • Haji Dost Muhammad Qandhari (1801-1868)
  • Yusuf Ma Dexin (1794-1874)
  • Yaqub Nanautawi (1833-1884)
  • Hafiz Ahmad Jaunpuri (1834-1899)
  • Abd al-Hayy al-Lucknawi (1848-1886)
  • Abdul Wahid Bengali (1850-1905)
  • Syed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari (1826-1906)
  • Abd Allah ibn Abbas ibn Siddiq (1854-1907)
  • Shibli Nomani (1857-1914)
  • Najib Ali Choudhury (fl. 1870s)
14th/20th
  • Abdul Hamid Madarshahi (1869-1920)
  • Mahmud Hasan Deobandi (1851-1920)
  • Abdul Awwal Jaunpuri (1867-1921)
  • Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi (1856-1921)
  • Sufi Azizur Rahman (1862-1922)
  • Muhammad Amjad (d. 1927)
  • Aziz-ul-Rahman Usmani (d. 1928)
  • Hamiduddin Farahi (1863-1930)
  • Ibrahim Ali Tashna (1872-1931)
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri (1875-1933)
  • Abdur Rab Jaunpuri (1875-1835)
  • Meher Ali Shah (1859-1937)
  • Ghulamur Rahman Maizbhandari (1865-1937)
  • Mohammad Abu Bakr Siddique (1845-1939)
  • Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943)
  • Ibrahim Ujani (1863-1943)
  • Habibullah Qurayshi (1865-1943)
  • Hamid Raza Khan (1875-1943)
  • Muhammad Sahool Bhagalpuri (d. 1948)
  • Amjad Ali Aazmi (1882-1948)
  • Naeem-ud-Deen Muradabadi (1887-1948)
  • Abd Allah Siraj (1876-1949)
  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949)
  • Jamaat Ali Shah (1834-1951)
  • Khwaja Yunus Ali (1886-1951)
  • Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (1879-1952)
  • Shihabuddeen Ahmed Koya Shaliyathi (1885-1954)
  • Izaz Ali Amrohi (1882-1955)
  • Hussain Ahmed Madani (1879-1957)
  • Ahmed Ali Enayetpuri (1898-1959)
  • Azizul Haq (1903-1961)
  • Sardar Ahmad Chishti (1903-1962)
  • Yusuf Kandhlawi (1917-1965)
  • Ibrahim Raza Khan (1907-1965)
  • Shah Ahmad Hasan (1882-1967)
  • Shamsul Haque Faridpuri (1896-1969)
  • Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni (1898-1970)
  • Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (1909-1970)
  • Mushahid Ahmad Bayampuri (1907-1971)
  • Abdur Rahman Kashgarhi (d. 1971)
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra (1898-1974)
  • ​Fazlur Rahman Ansari (1914-1974)
  • Deen Muhammad Khan (1900-1974)
  • Amimul Ehsan Barkati (1911-1974)
  • Abul Wafa Al Afghani (1893-1975)
  • Muhammad Faizullah (1892-1976)
  • Athar Ali Bengali (1891-1976)
  • Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (1880-1976)
  • Muhammad Shafi Deobandi (1897-1976)
  • Abul A'la Maududi (1903-1979)
  • Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri (1892-1981)
  • Muhammad Muslehuddin Siddiqui (1918-1983)
  • Ibrahim Chatuli (1894-1984)
  • Faiz-ul Hassan Shah (1911-1984)
  • Shafee Okarvi (1930-1984)
  • Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi (1908-1985)
  • Harun Babunagari (1902-1986)
  • Ahmad Saeed Kazmi (1913-1986)
  • Abdur Rahim Firozpuri (1918-1987)
  • Muhammadullah Hafezzi (1895-1987)
  • Shamsul Huda Panchbagi (1897-1988)
  • Abdul Haq Akorwi (1912-1988)
  • Abdul Jalil Choudhury (1925-1989)
  • Muntakhib al-Haqq (fl. 1980s)
  • Abu Zafar Mohammad Saleh (1915-1990)
  • Abdul Matin Chowdhury (1915-1990)
  • Muhammad Taqi Amini (1926-1991)
  • Masihullah Khan (1912-1992)
  • Syed Shujaat Ali Qadri (1941-1993)
  • Abul Hasan Jashori (1918-1993)
  • Waqaruddin Qadri (1915-1993)
  • Inamul Hasan Kandhlawi (1918-1995)
  • Mukhtar Ashraf (1916-1996)
  • Abdul Haque Faridi (1903-1996)
  • Mahmood Hasan Gangohi (1907-1996)
  • Shamsuddin Qasemi (1935-1996)
  • Shamsul-hasan Shams Barelvi (1917-1997)
  • Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904-1997)
  • Karam Shah al-Azhari (1918-1998)
  • Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi (1913-1999)
  • Rashid Ahmed Jaunpuri (1889-2001)
  • Arshadul Qadri (1925-2002)
  • Shah Ahmad Noorani (1926-2003)
  • Nur Uddin Gohorpuri (1924-2005)
  • Ashraf Ali Bishwanathi (1928-2005)
  • Syed Fazlul Karim (1935-2006)
  • Abrarul Haq Haqqi (1920-2006)
  • Ubaidul Haq (1928-2007)
  • Obaidul Haque Wazirpuri (1934-2008)
  • Abdul Latif Chowdhury Fultali (1913-2008)
  • Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi (1948-2009)
  • Naseeruddin Naseer Gilani (1949-2009)
15th/21st
  • Azizul Haque (1919-2012)
  • Abdus Sattar Akon (1929-2012)
  • Shah Saeed Ahmed Raipuri (1926-2012)
  • Fazlul Haque Amini (1945-2012)
  • Muhammad Fazal Karim (1954-2013)
  • Qazi Mu'tasim Billah (1933-2013)
  • Nurul Islam Farooqi (1959-2014)
  • Asad Muhammad Saeed as-Sagharji (d. 2015)
  • Abdur Rahman Chatgami (1920-2015)
  • Muhiuddin Khan (1935-2016)
  • Abdul Jabbar Jahanabadi (1937-2016)
  • Yunus Jaunpuri (1937-2017)
  • Akhtar Raza Khan (1943-2018)
  • Iftikhar-ul-Hasan Kandhlawi (1922-2019)
  • Yusuf Motala (1946-2019)
  • Tafazzul Haque Habiganji (1938-2020)
  • Muhammad Abdus Sobhan (1936-2020)
  • Abdul Momin Imambari (1930-2020)
  • Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (1940-2020)
  • Shah Ahmad Shafi (1945-2020)
  • Khadim Hussain Rizvi (1966-2020)
  • Nur Hossain Kasemi (1945-2020)
  • Muhammad Ali al-Sabuni (1930-2021)
  • Muhammad Wakkas (1952-2021)
  • Noor Alam Khalil Amini (1952-2021)
  • Junaid Babunagari (1953-2021)
  • Abdus Salam Chatgami (1943-2021)
  • Nurul Islam Jihadi (1916-2021)
  • Abdul Halim Bukhari (1945–2022)
  • Saifur Rahman Nizami (b. 1916)
  • Ghulam Rasool Jamaati (b. 1923)
  • Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani (b. 1935)
  • Muhibbullah Babunagari (b. 1935)
  • Ziaul Mustafa Razvi Qadri (b. 1935)
  • Yusuf Ziya Kavakçı (b. 1938)
  • Madni Miyan (b. 1938)
  • Sultan Zauq Nadvi (b. 1939)
  • Delwar Hossain Sayeedi (b. 1940)
  • Zia Uddin (b. 1941)
  • Muhammad Taqi Usmani (b. 1943)
  • Sayed Kamaluddin Zafree (b. 1945)
  • Muneeb-ur-Rehman (b. 1945)
  • Qamaruzzaman Azmi (b. 1946)
  • Muhammad Idrees Dahiri (b. 1947)
  • Farid Uddin Chowdhury (b. 1947)
  • Ilyas Qadri (b. 1950)
  • Mahmudul Hasan (b. 1950)
  • Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (b. 1951)
  • Nurul Islam Walipuri (b. 1955)
  • Ameen Mian Qaudri (b. 1955)
  • Kaukab Noorani Okarvi (b. 1957)
  • Hamid Saeed Kazmi (b. 1957)
  • AFM Khalid Hossain (b. 1959)
  • Najibul Bashar Maizbhandari (b. 1959)
  • Shahidul Islam (b. 1960)
  • Shakir Ali Noori (b. 1960)
  • Ruhul Amin (b. 1962)
  • Mizanur Rahman Sayed (b. 1963)
  • Sajidur Rahman (b. 1964)
  • Ibrahim Mogra (b. 1965)
  • Muhammad Arshad Misbahi (b. 1968)
  • Muhammad Abdul Malek (b. 1969)
  • Mahfuzul Haque (b. 1969)
  • Asjad Raza Khan (b. 1970)
  • Rezaul Karim (b. 1971)
  • Riyadh ul Haq (b. 1971)
  • Obaidullah Hamzah (b. 1972)
  • Raza Saqib Mustafai (b. 1972)
  • Mamunul Haque (b. 1973)
  • Saiful Islam (b. 1974)
  • Abdur Rahman Mangera (b. 1974)
  • Faraz Rabbani (b. 1974)
  • Amer Jamil (b. 1977)
  • Shahinur Pasha Chowdhury (b. 1985)
  • Abdul Malek Halim
  • Izharul Islam
  • Qasim Rashid Ahmad
  • Muhammad al-Kawthari
  • Yaseen Akhtar Misbahi
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence
  • Hanbali
  • Maliki
  • Shafi'i
  • Zahiri
  • v
  • t
  • e
Maturidi school of Sunni theology
Maturidi scholars
3rd AH/9th AD
  • Abu Bakr al-Samarqandi (d. 268 AH)
  • Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333 AH)
  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi (d. 342 AH)
  • Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi (d. 379 AH)
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi (d. 396 AH)
4th AH/10th AD
  • Abu Zayd al-Dabusi (d. 429 AH)
  • Ali Hujwiri (d. 464 AH)
  • Yūsuf Balasaguni (d. 469 AH)
  • Fakhr al-Islam al-Bazdawi (d. 482 AH)
  • Al-Sarakhsi (d. 483 AH)
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi (d. 493 AH)
5th AH/11th AD
  • Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi (d. 508 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Saffar al-Bukhari (d. 534 AH)
  • Yusuf Hamadani (d. 535 AH)
  • Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami (d. 536 AH)
  • Abu Hafs Umar al-Nasafi (d. 537 AH)
  • Ahmad Yasawi (d. 561 AH)
  • Nur al-Din Zengi (d. 569 AH)
  • Siraj al-Din al-Ushi (d. 575 AH)
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni (d. 580 AH)
  • Fatima al-Samarqandi (d. 581 AH)
  • Al-Kasani (d. 587 AH)
  • Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi (d. 593 AH)
6th AH/12th AD
  • Abu al-Thana' al-Lamishi (d. beginning of the 6th century AH)
  • Al-Mu'azzam 'Isa (d. 624 AH)
  • Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki (d. 632 AH)
  • Mu'in al-Din Chishti (d. 633 AH)
  • Saif ed-Din al-Boharsi (d. 659 AH)
  • Fariduddin Ganjshakar (d. 664 AH)
  • Rumi (d. 671 AH)
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi (d. after 690 AH)
7th AH/13th AD
  • Abu al-Barakat al-Nasafi (d. 710 AH)
  • Sultan Walad (d. 711 AH)
  • Nizamuddin Auliya (d. 725 AH)
  • Sadr al-Shari'a al-Asghar (d. 747 AH)
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti (d. 786 AH)
  • Baha' al-Din Naqshband (d. 791 AH)
  • Kadi Burhan al-Din (d. 800 AH)
8th AH/14th AD
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani (d. 816 AH)
  • Bande Nawaz (d. 825 AH)
  • Shams al-Din al-Fanari (d. 834 AH)
  • 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari (d. 841 AH)
  • Yaqub al-Charkhi (d. 851 AH)
  • Ahmad ibn Arabshah (d. 861 AH)
  • Badr al-Din al-'Ayni (d. 855 AH)
  • Al-Kamal ibn al-Humam (d. 861 AH)
  • Khidr Bey (d. 863 AH)
  • Ali al-Bistami (d. 874 AH)
  • 'Ali al-Qushji (d. 879 AH)
  • Mehmed II (d. 886 AH)
  • Khwaja Ahrar (d. 895 AH)
9th AH/15th AD
  • Ali-Shir Nava'i (d. 906 AH)
  • Husayn Kashifi (d. 910 AH)
  • Ibn Kemal (d. 940 AH)
  • Abdul Quddus Gangohi (d. 943 AH)
  • Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī (d. 955 AH)
  • Taşköprüzade (d. 968 AH)
  • Muhammad Birgivi (d. 980 AH)
  • Ebussuud Efendi (d. 982 AH)
10th AH/16th AD
  • Khwaja Baqi Billah (d. 1011 AH)
  • 'Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 AH)
  • Hasan Kafi al-Aqhisari (d. 1025 AH)
  • Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1034 AH)
  • Mahmud Hudayi (d. 1037 AH)
  • 'Abd al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (d. 1052 AH)
  • Mulla Mahmud Jaunpuri (d. 1061 AH)
  • 'Abd al-Hakim al-Siyalkoti (d. 1067 AH)
  • Wang Daiyu (d. around 1068 AH)
  • Kâtip Çelebi (d. 1068 AH)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Khafaji (d. 1069 AH)
  • Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (d. 1081 AH)
11th AH/17th AD
  • Aurangzeb (d. 1118 AH)
  • Ma Zhu (d. around 1123 AH)
  • Ismail Haqqi Bursevi (d. 1127 AH)
  • Shah Abdur Rahim (d. 1131 AH)
  • Liu Zhi of Nanjing (d. 1158 AH, or 1178 AH)
  • Nizamuddin Sihalivi (d. 1161 AH)
  • Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (d. 1174 AH)
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (d. 1176 AH)
  • 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (d. 1176 AH)
  • İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi (d. 1193 AH)
  • Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan (d. 1195 AH)
12th AH/18th AD
  • Gelenbevi Ismail Efendi (d. 1204 AH)
  • Murtada al-Zabidi (d. 1205 AH)
  • Sanaullah Panipati (d. 1225 AH)
  • Ghabdennasir Qursawi (d. 1226 AH)
  • Ghulam Ali Dehlavi (d. 1239 AH)
  • Shah Abdul Aziz (d. 1239 AH)
  • Shah Ismail Dehlvi (d. 1246 AH)
  • Syed Ahmad Barelvi (d. 1246 AH)
  • Ibn 'Abidin (d. 1252 AH)
  • Muhammad 'Abid al-Sindi (d. 1257 AH)
  • Mamluk Ali Nanautawi (d. 1267 AH)
  • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi (d. 1278 AH)
  • Yusuf Ma Dexin (d. 1291 AH)
  • Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi (d. 1297 AH)
  • Naqi Ali Khan (d. 1297 AH)
  • 'Abd al-Ghani al-Maydani (d. 1298 AH)
13th AH/19th AD
  • 'Abd al-Hayy al-Lucknawi (d. 1304 AH)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Marjani (d. 1306 AH)
  • Rahmatullah al-Kairanawi (d. 1308 AH)
  • Giritli Sırrı Pasha (d. 1312 AH)
  • Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (d. 1312 AH)
  • Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (d. 1317 AH)
  • Abai Qunanbaiuly (d. 1321 AH)
  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1323 AH)
  • Ahmad Hasan Amrohi (d. 1330 AH)
  • Muhammad Anwaarullah Farooqui (d. 1335 AH)
  • Mahmud Hasan Deobandi (d. 1338 AH)
  • Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi (d. 1340 AH)
  • Shakarim Qudayberdiuli (d. 1344 AH)
  • Muhammad Ali Mungeri (d. 1346 AH)
  • Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri (d. 1346 AH)
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri (d. 1352 AH)
  • Muhammad Bakhit al-Muti'i (d. 1354 AH)
  • Fatma Aliye Topuz (d. 1354 AH)
  • Meher Ali Shah (d. 1356 AH)
  • Muhammed Hamdi Yazır (d. 1361 AH)
  • Ashraf Ali Thanwi (d. 1361 AH)
  • Ubaidullah Sindhi (d. 1364 AH)
  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (d. 1368 AH)
  • Musa Bigiev (d. 1368 AH)
  • Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (d. 1371 AH)
  • Kifayatullah Dehlawi (d. 1371 AH)
  • Mustafa Sabri (d. 1373 AH)
  • Husayn Ahmad al-Madani (d. 1377 AH)
  • Süleyman Hilmi Tunahan (d. 1378 AH)
  • Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen (d. 1391 AH)
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra (d. 1394 AH)
  • Muhammad Shafi' Deobandi (d. 1395 AH)
  • Abul Wafa Al Afghani (d. 1395 AH)
  • Abdul Majid Daryabadi (d. 1397 AH)
14th AH/20th AD
  • Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi (d. 1402 AH)
  • Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi (d. 1403 AH)
  • Abdul Haq Akorwi (d. 1409 AH)
  • Habib al-Rahman al-'Azmi (d. 1412 AH)
  • Anzar Shah Kashmiri (d. 1428 AH)
  • Wahbah al-Zuhayli (d. 1436 AH)
  • Muhammad Salim Qasmi (d. 1439 AH)
  • Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (d. 1441 AH)
  • Muhammad Ali al-Sabuni (d. 1442 AH)
  • Nur Hossain Kasemi (d. 1442 AH)
  • Usmankhan Alimov (d. 1443 AH)
  • Muhammad Rafi' Usmani
  • Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri
  • Muhammad Taqi Usmani
  • Husein Kavazović
  • Salah Mezhiev
Imammaturidi.jpg
Theology books
  • Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
  • Kitab al-Tawhid
  • Tafsir al-Maturidi
  • Al-'Aqida al-Tahawiyya
  • Al-Sawad al-A'zam
  • Kutadgu Bilig
  • Tabsirat al-Adilla
  • 'Aqa'id al-Nasafi
  • Masnavi
  • Fihi Ma Fihi
  • Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi
  • Han Kitab
  • Tafsir al-Mazhari
  • Izhar ul-Haqq
  • Al-Muhannad ala al-Mufannad
  • Hak Dīni Kur'an Dili
See also
Maturidi-related templates
  • Hanafi
  • Ash'ari
  • Sufi
  • Islamic theology
  • v
  • t
  • e
Fields
Aqidah
  • Eschatology
  • Ethics
  • Kalam
Philosophy
Science
Sufism
  • Cosmology
  • Metaphysics
  • Philosophy
Theologians
Ash'ari
(Al-Ash'ari)
Early Sunni
  • Abū Ḥanīfah al-Nu'mān ibn Thābit (Hanafiyah)
  • Malik ibn Anas (Maliki)
  • Al-Shafi‘i (Shafi‘i)
Maturidi
(Al-Maturidi)
  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi
  • Al-Sarakhsi
  • Al-Bazdawi
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi
  • Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi
  • Abu Ishaq al-Saffar al-Bukhari
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi
  • 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti
  • Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni
  • Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi
  • Siraj al-Din al-Ushi
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi
  • Khidr Bey
  • Ibn Kemal
  • Ali Qushji
  • Ali al-Qari
  • Al-Maydani
  • Ahmad Sirhindi
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
  • Shah Abdul Aziz
  • Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
  • Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi
  • Rahmatullah Kairanawi
  • Murtada al-Zabidi
  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra
  • Kanthapuram A. P. Aboobacker Musliyar
  • Rumi
Mu'attila
  • Al-Ja'd ibn Dirham
    • Mu'jbira
  • Abū Muḥrīz Jahm ibn Ṣafwān ar-Rāsibī as-Samarqāndī at-Tirmidhī
    • Jahmīyya
      • Abū Abdirrahmān Bishr ibn Ghiyāth ibn Abī Karīma al-Marīsī al-Baghdādī
Mu'jassimā
  • Abu’l-Hassan Muqātil ibn Sulaymān ibn Bashīr al-Azdī al-Balkhī (Muqātilīyya)
  • Abū Muḥāmmad (Abū’l-Hākem) Heshām ibn Sālem al-Jawālikī al-Juzjanī al-Kūfī
    • Jawālikīyya
    • Rum Abdals
  • Ibn Karram (Karramiyya)
Murji'ah
  • Abū Marwān Gaylān ibn Mūslīm ad-Dimashqī an-Nabati al-Qībtī (Murjī-Qadariyah)
Mu'tazila
(Wasil ibn 'Ata')
  • Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār ibn Hāni’ an-Nazzām (Nazzāmīyya)
  • Abū Bakr Abdurrahmān ibn Kaysān al-Asāmm
  • Abū Mūsā Isā ibn Subeyh (Sabīh) al-Murdār al-Bāsrī (Murdārīyya)
  • Hīshām ibn Amr al-Fuwātī ash-Shaybānī (Hīshāmīyya)
  • Abū Sahl Abbād ibn Sulaimān (Salmān) as-Sāymarī
  • Abū Alī Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb ibn Sallām al-Jubbā'ī (Jubbāīyya)
  • Abū’l-Hūsayn Abdūrrāhīm ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Uthmān al-Hayyāt (Hayyātīyya)
  • Ja'far ibn Harb
  • Ja'far ibn Mūbassīr
  • Abū Uthmān Amr ibn Bhār ibn Māhbūb al-Jāhiz al-Kinānī (Jāhizīyya)
  • Al-Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar
    • Abu al-Husayn al-Basri
  • Al-Zamakhshari
  • Amr ibn Ubayd
  • Ibn Abi'l-Hadid
  • Sahib ibn Abbad
  • Abū Amr Ḍirār ibn Amr al-Gatafānī al-Kūfī (Ḍirārīyya)
Najjārīyya
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh al-Husayn ibn Muḥāmmad ibn ʿAbdillāh an-Najjār ar-Rāzī
    • Abū Amr (Abū Yahyā) Hāfs al-Fard
    • Muḥāmmad ibn ʿĪsā (Burgūsīyya)
    • Abū ʿAbdallāh Ibnū’z-Zā‘farānī (Zā‘farānīyya)
    • Mustadrakīyya
Salafi Theologians
  • Ibn Taymiyyah
  • Ibnul Qayyim
  • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
    • Wahhabism
  • Al-Shawkani
  • Rashid Rida
  • Bin Baz
  • Ibn al-Uthaymeen
  • Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i
  • Al-Albani
  • Saleh Al-Fawzan
  • Rabee al-Madkhali
    • Madkhalism
  • Syed Nazeer Husain
    • Ahl-i Hadith
  • Siddiq Hasan Khan
  • Zubair Ali Zai
  • Safar Al-Hawali
    • Sahwa movement
  • Salman al-Ouda
  • Osama bin Laden
    • Salafi Jihadism
  • Ahmad ibn Umar al-Hazimi
    • Hazimism
  • Yasir Qadhi
    • Post-Salafism
Shi’a-Imamiyyah
(Wilayat al-faqih)
  • The Twelve Imams
    • Ali
    • Hasan ibn Ali
    • Husayn ibn Ali
    • Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
    • Muhammad al-Baqir
    • Ja'far al-Sadiq
    • Musa al-Kadhim
    • Ali al-Ridha
    • Muhammad al-Jawad
    • Ali al-Hadi
    • Hasan al-Askari
    • Muhammad al-Mahdi
  • Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
  • Sharif al-Murtaza
  • Shaykh Tusi
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
  • Allamah Al-Hilli
  • Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi
  • Zurarah ibn A'yan
  • Hisham ibn Hakam
  • Agha Zia ol Din Araghi
  • Ja'far Sobhani
  • Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi’a-Ismailiyyah
(Ibn Maymūn)
Key books
Sunni books
  • Asas al-Taqdis
  • Al-Baz al-Ashhab
  • Al-Farq bayn al-Firaq
  • Al-Milal wa al-Nihal
  • Al-Irshad
  • Al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah
  • Al-Sawad al-A'zam
  • Kitab al-Tawhid
  • Tabsirat al-Adilla
  • Masnavi
  • Fihi Ma Fihi
  • Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi
  • The Moderation in Belief
Shia books
Independent
Ahl us-
Sunnah
wa’l-
Jama’ah
Ahl al-Hadith
(Traditionalism)
Ahl ar-Ra'y
(Ilm al-Kalam)
  • Ashʿari
    • Malikis
    • Shafi'is
      • Abdullah al-Harari – Al-Ahbash
  • Maturidi
    • Hanafis
      • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi / Ahmed Raza Khan – Barelvi
      • Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi / Rashid Ahmad Gangohi – Deobandi
      • Necmettin Erbakan – Millî Görüş
Shia Islam
Zaydi Shi'a
Imami
Mahdiist
Shi'ite
Sects in
Islam
Imami
Twelver
  • Theology of Twelvers
    • Ja'fari
      • Akhbari
      • Usuli
    • Shaykhism
  • Qizilbash
  • Ghulat
  • Baktāshism
Imami
Isma'ilism
  • Fathite
    • Abdullah al-Aftah
  • Batiniyyah
    • Hamdan Qarmat – Sevener Qarmatians
    • Hamza / Baha al-Din al-Muqtana / ad-Darazi – Druzes
  • Fatimids
    • Musta'li
      • Tayyibi
        • Alavi
        • Dawoodi
        • Sulaymani
      • Hafizi
    • Nasir Khusraw al-Qubadiani – Badakhshan Alevism
  • Nizari
    • Hassan-i Sabbah – Assassins
    • Aga Khans – Nizaris / Khojas
    • Pir Sadardin – Satpanth
Kaysanites
Shia
Other Mahdiists
  • An-Nafs Az-Zakiyyah
  • Hurufiyya
    • Maḥmūd Pasīkhānī – Nuktawiyya
  • Shayki
  • Tawussite Shia
    • ʿAjlan ibn Nawus
  • Waqifite Shia
Muhakkima
(Arbitration)
Kharijites
  • Ajardi
    • Abd al-Karīm ibn Adjrād
    • Maymunīyyah
    • Sa'labīyyah
  • Azariqa
    • Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hānafī al-Handhalī
  • Bayhasīyyah
    • Abu Bayhas al-Hāytham ibn Jābir
  • Najdat
    • Najdah ibn 'Amir al-Hānafī
  • Sufri
    • Abu Qurra
    • Abū Yazīd Mukhallad ibn Kayrād al-Nukkari
Ibadism
Murji'ah
(Hasan ibn
Muḥāmmad
ibn al-
Hanafiyyah)
Karrāmīyya
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-Sijjī
    • ʿĀbidīyya (ʿUthmān al-ʿĀbid)
    • Dhīmmīyya
    • Hakāiqīyya
    • Haisamīyya (Abū ʿAbdallāh Muhammad ibn al-Haisam)
    • Hīdīyya (Hīd ibn Saif)
    • Ishāqīyya (Abū Yaʿqūb Ishāq ibn Mahmashādh)
    • Maʿīyya
    • Muhājirīyya (Ibrāhīm ibn Muhājir)
    • Nūnīyya
    • Razīnīyya
    • Sauwāqīyya
    • Sūramīyya
    • Tarā'ifīyya (Ahmad ibn ʿAbdūs at-Tarā'ifī)
    • Tūnīyya (Abū Bakr ibn ʿAbdallāh)
    • Wāhidīyya
    • Zarībīyya
Other sects
  • Gaylānīyya
    • Gaylān ibn Marwān
  • Yūnusīyya
    • Yūnus ibn Awn an-Namīrī
  • Gassānīyya
    • Gassān al-Kūfī
  • Tūmanīyya
    • Abū Muāz at-Tūmanī
  • Sawbānīyya
    • Abū Sawbān al-Murjī
  • Sālehīyya
    • Sāleh ibn Umar
  • Shamrīyya
    • Abū Shamr
  • Ubaydīyya
    • Ubayd al-Mūktaib
  • Ziyādīyya
    • Muhammad ibn Ziyād al-Kūfī
Other Murjīs
  • Al-Harith ibn Surayj
  • Sa'id ibn Jubayr
  • Hammād ibn Abū Sūlaimān
  • Muhārīb ibn Dithār
  • Sābit Kutna
  • Awn ibn Abdullāh
  • Mūsā ibn Abū Kasīr
  • Umar ibn Zar
  • Salm ibn Sālem
  • Hālaf ibn Ayyūb
  • Ibrāhim ibn Yousūf
  • Nusayr ibn Yahyā
  • Ahmad ibn Hārb
  • Amr ibn Murrah
Mu'shabbiha
Tamsīl
  • Jawārībīyya
    • Dāwūd al-Jawāribî
  • Hāshwīyya
  • Hulmānīyya
    • Abū Hulmān al-Fārisī ad-Dimashqī
    • Kalandars
    • Bārāq Bābā
Tasjīm
  • Khāttabīyya
    • Bāzīghīyya
      • Bāzīgh ibn Mūsā
    • Muʿāmmarīyya
      • Muʿāmmar ibn Ahmar
    • ʿIjlīyya/Umayrīyya
      • Umayr ibn Bayān al-ʿIjlī
    • Mufāddālīyya
      • Mufāddāl ibn Umār as-Sāyrāfī
    • Ghurābīyya
  • Mānsūrīyya
    • Abū Mānsūr al-ʿIjlī
  • Mughīrīyya
    • Abū Abdillāh Mugīre ibn Sāīd al-ʿIjlī el-Bajalī
  • Mukhāmmīsa
    • Namiriya
    • ‘Ulyanīyya/'Alyaīyya
  • Saba'īyya
Qadariyah
(Ma'bad
al-Juhani)
Alevism
  • Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar – Malamatiyya / Qalandariyya
  • Baba Ishak – Babai revolt
  • Balım Sultan – Bektashi Order
  • Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu – Rifa`i / Galibi Order
Muʿtazila
(Rationalism)
  • Mā’marīyya
  • Bahshamiyya
    • Abū Hāshīm Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'ī
  • Huzaylīyya
    • Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-Abdī al-Bāsrī
      • Abū Ma‘n Sūmāma ibn Ashras an-Nūmayrī al-Bāsrī al-Baghdādī
  • Ikhshīdiyya
  • Nazzāmīyya
    • Ali al-Aswarī
    • Abū Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn Shabīb al-Basrī
    • Hābītīyya
      • Ahmad ibn Hābīt
  • Sumamīyya
    • Sumāma ibn Ashras
  • Kā‘bīyya
    • Abū’l-Kāsīm Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn Māhmūd al-Balhī al-Kā‘bī
Quranism
  • Ahle Qur'an
  • Kala Kato
  • Tolu-e-Islam
    • Muhammad Iqbal
    • Ghulam Ahmed Pervez
  • United Submitters International
Independent
Muslim
beliefs
Messianism
Modernism
  • Modernist Salafism
    • Muhammad Abduh
    • Muhammad Asad
    • Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani
    • Rashid Rida
    • Other Islamic modernists
Taṣawwuf
Other beliefs
  • Sadaqah
  • Sunnah
  • Taqwa
  • Tawakkul
  • Tewafuq
  • Thawab
  • v
  • t
  • e
People of Khorasan
Scientists
Philosophers
  • Algazel
  • Amiri
  • Avicenna
  • Farabi
  • Haji Bektash Veli
  • Nasir Khusraw
  • Sijistani
  • Shahrastani
Islamic scholars
  • Abu Dawud al-Sijistani
  • Abu Barakat Nasafi
  • Abu Hanifa
  • Abu Hafs Nasafi
  • Abu Layth Samarqandi
  • Abu Mu'in Nasafi
  • Abu Qasim Samarqandi
  • Ansari
  • Baghavi
  • Bayhaqi
  • Bazdawi
  • Bukhari
  • Dabusi
  • Fatima Samarqandi
  • Ghazali
  • Ghaznawi
  • Hakim Tirmidhi
  • Hakim Nishapuri
  • Ibn Hibban
  • Ibn Mubarak
  • Ibn Tayfour Sajawandi
  • Juwayni
  • Kasani
  • Kashifi
  • Lamishi
  • Marghinani
  • Maturidi
  • Mulla al-Qari
  • Muqatil
  • Muslim
  • Nasa'i
  • Qushayri
  • Razi
  • Sabuni
  • Sajawandi
  • Sarakhsi
  • Shaykh Tusi
  • Taftazani
  • Tha'labi Nishapuri
  • Tirmidhi
  • Zamakhshari
Poets and artists
  • Abu Sa'id Abu'l-Khayr
  • Anvari
  • Aruzi Samarqandi
  • Asadi Tusi
  • Attar Nishapuri
  • Behzad
  • Daqiqi
  • Farrukhi Sistani
  • Ferdowsi
  • Jami
  • Kashifi
  • Nasir Khusraw
  • Rabia Balkhi
  • Rudaki
  • Rumi
  • Sanā'ī
Historians and
political figures
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