Foreign relations of Bulgaria

Bulgarian government's external relations with the outside world
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The Republic of Bulgaria is a country in Southeast Europe, and a member of both NATO (since 2004) and the European Union (since 2007).[1] It maintains diplomatic relations with 181 countries.[2]

Bulgaria has generally good foreign relations with its neighbors and has proved to be a constructive force in the region[citation needed] under socialist and democratic governments alike. Promoting regional stability, Bulgaria hosted a Southeast European Foreign Ministers meeting in July 1996, and an OSCE conference on Black Sea cooperation in November 1995. Bulgaria also participated in the 1996 South Balkan Defense Ministerial in Albania and it is active in the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative. Since the group's inception in 2015 Bulgaria has been a part of the B9 format, a subset of Eastern European NATO countries.

Bulgaria's main allies are Greece and Romania, and it maintains good relations with Serbia and the rest of the Balkans. The Republic of North Macedonia plays an important role in Bulgarian foreign and domestic policy due to historical, ethnic and cultural ties.[citation needed]

History

Flags of NATO, Bulgaria, European Union at the Military club of Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, Bulgaria sought economic cooperative arrangements with Germany, Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain, as well as military cooperation with Romania, Greece, and Turkey. A start was made on easing tensions with its historical adversary Serbia.[3]

Due to close historical, cultural, and economic ties, Bulgaria seeks a mutually beneficial relationship with Russia, on which it largely depends for energy supplies.

Bulgaria's EU Association Agreement came into effect in 1994, and Bulgaria formally applied for full EU membership in December 1995. During the 1999 EU summit in Helsinki, the country was invited to start membership talks with the Union. On January 1, 2007, Bulgaria officially became a member of the European Union. In 1996, Bulgaria acceded to the Wassenaar Arrangement controlling exports of weapons and sensitive technology to countries of concern and also was admitted to the World Trade Organization. Bulgaria is a member of the Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group. After a period of equivocation under a socialist government, in March 1997 a UDF-led caretaker cabinet applied for full NATO membership, which became a reality in April 2004.

Bulgaria and the United States signed a Defense Cooperation Agreement in 2006 providing for military bases and training camps of the U.S. Army in Bulgaria, as part of the Pentagon's restructuring plan.

The HIV trial in Libya resulted in the release of Bulgarian nurses imprisoned by Muammar Gaddafi's government in Libya. French President Nicolas Sarkozy secured the release in exchange for several business deals.[4][5]

In June 2010, media reports claimed that Bulgaria considers closing a total of 30 of its diplomatic missions abroad. Currently, Bulgaria has 83 embassies, 6 permanent representations, 20 consular offices, and 2 diplomatic bureaus. The proposed closures were backed by Prime Minister Boyko Borisov, who described some of Bulgaria's embassies as useless.[6] In November 2010, Bulgaria's Foreign Minister Nikolay Mladenov formally announced his team proposes to close seven embassies as part of a plan for restructuring and austerity measures. Thus, in 2011, Bulgaria will most likely shut down its diplomatic missions in Sudan, Angola, Zimbabwe, Cambodia, Thailand, Mexico, and Tunisia. The choice is based on a scrutinizing financial analysis and on the necessity to optimize the diplomatic corps, the Ministry says. The staff of the Bulgarian diplomatic corps will be reduced by 15 people in total.

In March 2012 the Borisov administration decided to discontinue its plans to build with the help of Rosatom and Atomstroyexport the Belene nuclear station near the River Danube. At the time, Bulgaria depended on Russia for 89% of its petrol, 100% of natural gas and all of the nuclear fuel needed for its twin-reactor Kozloduy nuclear station.[7] In the sequential lawsuit, the International Court of Arbitration at the International Chamber of Commerce in Geneva ruled against Bulgaria.[8]

In August 2014 Bulgaria suspended its 930 km portion of the South Stream natural gas pipeline project with Gazprom until the project conforms to European Union law. In default of this project, Naftogaz and Ukraine stood to benefit.[9] Gas was to be pumped to the Black Sea port of Varna before it travelled overland to the Serbian border and northeast from there to Hungary, Slovenia and Austria.[10]

A Bulgarian weapons dealer named Emilian Gebrev was poisoned (along with his son and an employee[11]) in Sofia in spring 2015 using a substance believed to be the nerve agent Novichok,[12] and in 2020 three Russian nationals were charged in absentia. One of the three went by the name Sergei Fedotov,[13] which is the alias of Denis Sergeev (GRU officer).

The Bucharest Nine (or B9 format) is an organization founded on 4 November 2015 in Bucharest, Romania, at the initiative of the President of Romania Klaus Iohannis and the President of Poland Andrzej Duda during a bilateral meeting between them.[14] Its members are Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Its apparition was mainly a result of a perceived aggressive attitude from Russia following the annexation of Crimea from Ukraine and its posterior intervention in eastern Ukraine both in 2014. All members of the B9 were either part of the former Soviet Union (USSR) or the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.[2][15]

Rampant corruption has led as recently as June 2019 to repeated rejection of Bulgaria's attempts to join the Schengen Area.[16]

After the Prespa Agreement between Macedonia and Greece went into force in 2018, Bulgaria broke the Friendship Agreement in which it would assist Macedonia with its EU integration, and instead vetoed the start of Macedonia's EU accession talks. Bulgaria now places demands, which some Macedonian observers label "outrageous", on Macedonia in which Macedonians must ‘admit’ their grandparents were Bulgarians and their language is in fact Bulgarian if they wish to continue their path into the EU.[17]

Bulgaria manufactures many types of Soviet-era ammunition, anti-tank missiles, and light arms, and has extensive trade ties with other recovering Soviet countries for this reason.[18]

The TurkStream natural gas pipeline project seemed to excite quite a few journalists.[19][20] The project's European landfall is Bulgaria.[20] TurkStream started shipping gas to Bulgaria, Greece and North Macedonia on 1 January 2020,[21] after the personal intervention of Vladimir Putin.[22] One journalist ran his article under the headline "How Bulgaria gave Gazprom the keys to the Balkans".[23]

In 2020, five Russian diplomats and the Russian military attaché were expelled on grounds that they were engaging in espionage.[24] Together with the two expelled on account of the Iliev scandal, eight Russian diplomats were expelled over 18 months to April 2021.[25]

Prime Minister Kiril Petkov has introduced a political taboo on the use of Russian narratives, including the "special operation" label favoured by Vladimir Putin. Those who think otherwise so have to bear heavy political responsibility: the Bulgarian Minister of Defense, Stefan Yanev, was the first to be punished. He allowed himself to declare, following Putin, that it is not "war" in Ukraine but a "military operation". Petkov dismissed the minister on March 1, a scant week after the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[26]

Petkov recalled his ambassador to Russia, after Russian ambassador to Bulgaria Eleonora Mitrofanova conducted herself abysmally in the wake of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[26]

On 7 May 2022 the head of Bulgargaz, Ivan Topchiisky, announced that Bulgaria will be able to overcome its dependence on the Russian supplier Gazprom by the end of 2022. The demands of Gazprom to make payments for gas in rubles added fuel to the fire, and Sofia refused. Thus, Bulgaria turned out to be one of the two EU countries to which Russia cut off gas supplies, and this necessitated the urgent co-operation of EU Commissioner Ursula von der Leyen.[26]

In early 2022, Petkov was sympathetic to Volodymyr Zelensky's repeated requests for military aid during his country's battle against the Russians but he faced the refusal of his coalition partner the Bulgarian Socialist Party (which is the successor to the Soviet-era Bulgarian Communist Party[27]) and their leader Korneliya Ninova.[18] On 4 May, Parliament approved the continuation of repairs to damaged Ukrainian military equipment,[28] and will continue to support Ukraine's membership in the EU, as well as to the Ukrainian refugees from the war,[26] who numbered more than 56,000 as of 7 June.[29] Petkov noted Bulgaria's espousal of all sanctions against Russia, and would allow the use of the Port of Varna to transship goods that had been stifled by the Russian Blockade of Odessa.[30]

Bulgaria-NATO relations

Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004,[31] three years before it acceded to the European Union.[24]

In June 2016 Borisov and Plevneliev vetoed Romania's idea of forming a NATO flotilla in the Black Sea,[26] one day after a stern warning from Russia.[32] NATO partners Romania and Turkey had favoured the idea,[32] along with Ukraine, which wanted to join any such initiative.[8] The refusal came on the day of a visit of President Ioannis of Romania.[8]

In 2018, Bulgaria ordered eight F-16 machines, to replace its aging fleet of Mig 29s. Together with service and training, they will cost $1.2 billion.[33] The fleet of Mig 29s are serviced by their Russian manufacturer.[25]

In December 2020 German manufacturer Lurssen was contracted to equip the Bulgarian Navy with new Multipurpose Modular Patrol Vessels (aka Offshore Patrol Vessels) built at the Bulgarian shipyard MTG Dolphin JSC. Lürssen is the prime contractor for the Bulgarian Ministry of Defence, while Swedish manufacturer Saab AB subcontracted to provide the electronics.[34] The contract was valued at $593 million.[35] The vessels are 90 meters long and displace 2,300 tons.[36]

In December 2020 one Russian military attaché in Sofia was alleged to have gathered information on US service members stationed on Bulgarian territory during military exercises.[13]

In 2021 six USAF F-16s operated from Bulgaria's Graf Ignatievo Air Base.[13]

On 18 March 18 Bulgaria and Romania amended their 2011 Agreement on cross-border air policing.[25]

In March 2021 six Bulgarians were charged with espionage and several Russian diplomats were expelled. The Bulgarian ring leader was a highly placed former official with the Ministry of Defense named Ivan Iliev, who corrupted his wife, and who trained military intelligence officers. Two Russian diplomats named Sergei Nikolashin and Vadim Bikov were expelled on 22 March 2021. Iliev was finally apprehended outside the Russian embassy, where he had intended to obtain asylum. Another arrest was that of Lyubomir Medarov who had until then been in charge of the office of classified communications and information of the Bulgarian parliament. Colonel Petar Petrov from the Ministry of Defense had access to the most highly classified documents about NATO activities. One observer characterized this event as the biggest story in Bulgarian defence since World War Two. Prosecutors alleged that the group "posed a serious threat to national security by collecting and handing to a foreign country state secrets of Bulgaria, NATO and the European Union." At the time of the arrests, several held senior positions in the Military Intelligence Service and the Ministry of Defence.[13][24][33]

Diplomatic relations

Countries which Bulgaria maintains diplomatic relations with
List of countries which Bulgaria has diplomatic relations with:
# Country Date[37]
1  Russia 7 July 1879
2  France 8 July 1879
3  Romania 21 July 1879
4  Italy 25 July 1879
5  Turkey July 1879
6  United Kingdom 23 July 1879
7  Serbia 6 September 1879
8  Belgium 11 December 1879
9  Greece 9 September 1880
10  Iran 15 November 1897
11  United States 19 September 1903
12  Netherlands 8 July 1909
13  Spain 5 August 1910
14  Albania April 1914
15  Sweden 6 July 1914
16   Switzerland 31 October 1915
17  Norway 20 April 1918
18  Finland 5 August 1918
19  Poland 30 December 1918
20  Austria November 1919
21  Japan 1919
22  Hungary 9 August 1920
23  Czech Republic 27 September 1920
24  Egypt 5 November 1925
25  Denmark 17 April 1931
26  Argentina 8 July 1931
27  Brazil 17 September 1934
28  Chile 1935
29  Mexico 6 January 1938
30  Israel 29 November 1948
31  North Korea 29 November 1948
32  China 3 October 1948
33  Vietnam 8 February 1950
34  Mongolia 22 April 1950
35  Syria 24 August 1954
36  India 22 December 1954
37  Myanmar 18 November 1955
38  Sudan 1 June 1956
39  Ethiopia 3 June 1956
40  Tunisia 30 August 1956
41  Indonesia 20 September 1956
42  Luxembourg 16 December 1956
43  Uruguay 21 May 1958
44  Iraq 14 August 1958
45  Guinea 2 January 1959
46  Cambodia 18 September 1960
47  Somalia 28 September 1960
48  Cuba 8 October 1960
49  Mali 23 October 1960
50  Cyprus 30 October 1960
51  Democratic Republic of the Congo 22 February 1961
52  Ghana 10 August 1961
53  Afghanistan 12 June 1961
54  Morocco 1 September 1961
55  Sri Lanka 10 June 1962
56  Tanzania 16 June 1962
57  Benin 25 June 1962
58  Laos 13 September 1962
59  Sierra Leone 28 September 1962
60  Algeria 10 October 1962
61  Yemen 12 October 1962
62  Kuwait 15 June 1963
63  Libya 1 June 1963
64  Iceland 27 December 1963
65  Kenya 14 February 1964
66  Nigeria 10 March 1964
67  Uganda 17 May 1964
68  Jordan 9 October 1964
69  Burundi 28 December 1964
70  Republic of Congo 31 December 1964
71  Pakistan 15 June 1965
72  Mauritania 28 December 1965
73  Canada 30 June 1966
74  Lebanon 19 September 1966
75  Singapore 18 October 1967
76  Ivory Coast 15 December 1967
77  Senegal 28 December 1967
78    Nepal 15 April 1968
79  Burkina Faso 29 May 1968
80  Zambia 20 October 1968
81  Malaysia 4 January 1969
82  Peru 18 April 1969
83  San Marino 15 December 1969
84  Central African Republic 9 January 1970
85  Costa Rica 9 October 1970
86  Bolivia 18 December 1970
87  Ecuador 28 April 1971
88  Malta 11 September 1971
89  Equatorial Guinea 15 September 1971
90  Bangladesh 31 January 1972
91  Australia 5 April 1972
92  Niger 5 March 1973
93  Panama 21 March 1973
94  Colombia 11 May 1973
95  Philippines 16 November 1973
96  Germany 21 December 1973
97  Guinea-Bissau 2 June 1974
98  Togo 19 June 1974
99  Portugal 26 June 1974[38]
100  Venezuela 2 August 1974
101  Thailand 10 August 1974
 State of Palestine 24 August 1974
102  Liberia 1 November 1974
103  Mauritius 20 June 1975
104  Mozambique 25 June 1975
105  Angola 20 November 1975
106  Gabon 15 May 1976
107  Madagascar 15 June 1976
108  Jamaica 22 March 1977
109  Guyana 25 March 1977
110  Comoros 6 June 1977
111  Nicaragua 16 November 1979
112  Rwanda 20 December 1979
113  Sao Tome and Principe 23 December 1979
114  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
115  Cabo Verde 5 June 1980
116  Grenada 9 June 1980
117  Lesotho 10 June 1980
118  Seychelles 15 August 1980
119  Botswana 16 August 1982
120  Cameroon 24 February 1984
121  Maldives 14 August 1984
122  New Zealand 9 October 1984
123  Chad 10 October 1989[39]
124  South Korea 23 March 1990
125  Namibia 6 June 1990
126  Ireland 11 June 1990
127  Oman 17 June 1990
128  Qatar 17 October 1990
  Holy See 6 December 1990
129  Dominican Republic 14 June 1991
130  El Salvador 27 June 1991
131  Estonia 10 September 1991
132  Latvia 10 September 1991
133  United Arab Emirates 10 October 1991
134  Bahrain 15 October 1991
135  Lithuania 10 December 1991
136  Ukraine 13 December 1991
137  Armenia 18 January 1992
138  South Africa 2 February 1992
139  Moldova 5 February 1992
140  Barbados 12 March 1992[39]
141  Belarus 26 March 1992
142  Turkmenistan 20 May 1992
143  Kyrgyzstan 20 May 1992
144  Azerbaijan 5 June 1992
145  Georgia 5 June 1992
146  Kazakhstan 5 June 1992
147  Croatia 13 August 1992
148  Slovenia 18 August 1992
149  Uzbekistan 12 September 1992
150  Paraguay 7 December 1992
151  Slovakia 1 January 1993
152  Eritrea 31 May 1993
153  Tajikistan 24 August 1993
154  North Macedonia 22 December 1993
155  Guatemala 14 January 1994
156  Belize 15 February 1994
157  Brunei 14 April 1994
158  Liechtenstein 26 April 1994
159  Andorra 14 June 1994
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta[40] 11 November 1994
160  Malawi 23 November 1994[39]
161  Eswatini 30 January 1995
162  Saudi Arabia 20 March 1995
163  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12 January 1996
164  Nauru 30 April 2001[39]
165  Antigua and Barbuda 7 June 2001[39]
166  East Timor 21 January 2003[41]
167  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11 September 2003
168  Honduras 7 May 2004[39]
169  Suriname 20 September 2004
170  Montenegro 2 August 2006[42]
171  Djibouti 13 February 2007[43]
172  Bahamas 27 September 2007[39]
 Kosovo 27 May 2008[44]
173  Solomon Islands 27 April 2011[39]
174  Dominica 28 April 2011[39]
175  Tuvalu 18 May 2011[39]
176  Trinidad and Tobago 20 September 2011[39]
177  Fiji 25 May 2015[39]
178  Monaco 14 February 2018[45]
179  Vanuatu 24 June 2019[39]
180  Saint Lucia 5 November 2020[39]
181  Palau 7 July 2022[46]

Bulgaria has not established diplomatic relations with Bhutan, Federated States of Micronesia, Gambia, Haiti, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, South Sudan, and Tonga.

Relations by region and country

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1962[47]
 Angola 20 November 1975
 Egypt 3 February 1926[53] See Bulgaria–Egypt relations
 Ethiopia
 Kenya
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Kenya from its embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Kenya is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Libya 30 June 1963[54]
 Morocco 1 September 1961[55][full citation needed]
 Nigeria 1964[58]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
 South Africa 2 February 1992 See Bulgaria–South Africa relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Pretoria
  • Since 1992, South Africa has an embassy in Sofia.[59]
 Sudan 1 July 1956[60] See Bulgaria–Sudan relations
  • In 1967, Bulgaria sent the first Bulgarian ambassador to Khartoum. The activities of the Bulgarian embassy in Khartoum were terminated in April 1990.
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Sudan from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Sofia.
 Tunisia 1956[61]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1931[64]
  • Argentina has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Belize 15 February 1994[65] See Belize–Bulgaria relations
 Brazil 1934[67]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada 30 June 1966[68] See Bulgaria–Canada relations
 Chile 1935[72]
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Chile is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania and maintains an honorary consulate in Sofia.
 Colombia 8 May 1973[73][full citation needed]
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Colombia from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Colombia is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 Cuba 1960[74]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Sofia.
 Dominica
  • Bulgaria is represented in Dominica through its embassy in Havana, Cuba.[75]
 Ecuador 1971[76]
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.
  • Ecuador is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Budapest, Romania and maintains an honorary consulate in Sofia.
 Mexico 6 January 1938[77][full citation needed] See Bulgaria–Mexico relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Mexico City.[78]
  • Mexico is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary and maintains an honorary consulate in Sofia.[79]
 Paraguay 2 December 1992
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Paraguay is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Rome, Italy.[80]
 Peru 1969
  • Peru closed its embassy in Sofia for economic reasons in 2003.
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.
  • Peru is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Athens, Greece.[81]
 United States 1903[82] See Bulgaria–United States relations

Bulgarian-American relations, first formally established in 1903, have moved from missionary activity and American support for Bulgarian independence in the late 19th century to the growth of trade and commerce in the early 20th century, to reluctant hostility during World War I and open war and bombardment in World War II, to ideological confrontation during the Cold War, to partnership with the United States in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and growing political, military and economic ties in the beginning of the 21st century.

 Uruguay
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania and maintains an honorary consulate in Sofia.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 12 June 1961[83]
 Armenia 18 January 1992[86] See Armenia–Bulgaria relations
 Azerbaijan 5 June 1992[89] See Azerbaijan–Bulgaria relations
 China 3 October 1949[92] See Bulgaria–China relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Beijing.[93]
  • China has an embassy in Sofia.[94]
  • Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
 Georgia 5 June 1992[95] See Bulgaria–Georgia relations
 India 22 December 1954[98] See Bulgaria–India relations
 Indonesia 20 September 1956[101] See Bulgaria–Indonesia relations
  • Bulgaria was among the States that recognized Indonesia's independence on September 21, 1956, and the two countries established diplomatic relations.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Jakarta since October 1958 and Indonesia has had an embassy in Sofia since 1960.[102]
 Iran 1897[103]
 Iraq 14 August 1958[107] See Bulgaria–Iraq relations
 Israel 4 December 1948[110]
 Japan 12 October 1939[113] See Bulgaria–Japan relations
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations in September 1959.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Tokyo and an honorary consulate in Yokohama.[114]
  • Japan has an embassy in Sofia.[115]
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
 Kazakhstan 5 June 1992[116]
  • Since 1994, Bulgaria had an embassy in Almaty, later moved to Nur-Sultan.[117]
  • Since November 2004, Kazakhstan has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Sofia.
 Lebanon 19 September 1966
 Mongolia 22 April 1950[120] See Bulgaria–Mongolia relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia.
 North Korea 29 November 1948[121]
  • Diplomatic relations were established on 29 November 1948.
  • Bulgaria maintains an embassy in Pyongyang, North Korea.
  • North Korea maintains an embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Bulgarian Foreign Ministry on the relations between the two countries
 Pakistan 15 June 1965[122]
  • Since 1974, Bulgaria has an embassy in Islamabad.[123]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Sofia.
 Palestine November 1988[124]
 South Korea 23 March 1990[125] See Bulgaria–South Korea relations
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Bulgaria began on 23 March, 1990.
  • During the Cold War, the Republic of Bulgaria had diplomatic relations only with North Korea however, after the Cold War, Bulgaria has also had diplomatic relations with South Korea.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Seoul.[126][127]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Sofia.[128][129]
  • Bulgaria–South Korea relations
 Syria 24 July 1954 See Bulgaria–Syria relations
 Thailand 10 August 1974[132]
  • Since 1975, Bulgaria has an embassy in Bangkok.[133]
  • Thailand has an honorary consulate in Sofia.[134]
  • There is a Thai village in Bulgaria since 2006 [135]
 Turkey 18 October 1925[136] See Bulgaria–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates 19 October 1991[139] See Bulgaria–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Bulgaria has a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Uzbekistan 12 September 1992[140] See Bulgaria–Uzbekistan relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Bulgaria from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tashkent.
 Vietnam 8 February 1950[141] See Bulgaria–Vietnam relations
 Yemen 12 October, 1962[144] See Bulgaria–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1922[145] See Albania–Bulgaria relations
 Andorra 14 July 1993[150] See Andorra–Bulgaria relations
 Austria 7 July 1879[152] See Austria–Bulgaria relations
 Belarus 26 March 1992[155] See Belarus–Bulgaria relations
  • Bulgaria recognized Belarus on December 23, 1991.[156]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Sofia and an honorary consulate in Burgas.[157]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Minsk.[158]
 Belgium 1879[159] See Belgium–Bulgaria relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15 January 1992[162] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Bulgaria relations
 Croatia 13 August 1992[165] See Bulgaria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 30 October 1960[168] See Bulgaria–Cyprus relations
  • Bulgaria was one of the first countries to recognize Cypriot independence on 30 October, 1960.[169]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Nicosia, and honorary consulate in Limassol.[citation needed]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Sofia.[citation needed]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.[149]
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Bulgaria
 Czech Republic 27 September 1920[170] See Bulgaria–Czech Republic relations
 Denmark 17 April 1931[174] See Bulgaria–Denmark relations
 Estonia 20 May 1921[175] See Bulgaria–Estonia relations
  • Bulgaria recognised Estonia on May 20, 1921, and re-recognised Estonia on August 26, 1991.
  • Both countries restored diplomatic relations on September 10, 1991.
  • In 2009, Bulgaria opened an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Sofia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
 Finland 5 August 1918[176] See Bulgaria–Finland relations
  • In 1963, the diplomatic representations of the two countries were upgraded to the level of embassy.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Helsinki and an honorary consulate in Kemi.
  • Finland has an embassy in Sofia and an honorary consulate in Varna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.[149]
  • Bulgarian embassy in Helsinki
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
  • Finnish embassy in Sofia
 France 8 July 1879[177] See Bulgaria–France relations
 Germany 1879[179] See Bulgaria–Germany relations
 Greece 1880[182] See Bulgaria–Greece relations

Relations between Greece and Bulgaria have been very cordial since the 1950s, due to the strong cultural, political and religious ties between the two nations, preceded in the earlier 20th century by periods of intense mutual hostility. Since Bulgaria's independence in 1876, Greece and Bulgaria faced each other in three major wars: the Second Balkan War, the First World War and the Second World War, in which Bulgaria briefly occupied parts of northern Greece.

  Holy See See Holy See–Bulgaria relations
  • Diplomatic relations were restored on 6 December, 1990.[183]
 Hungary 9 August 1920[184] See Bulgaria–Hungary relations
 Iceland 27 December 1963[185] See Bulgaria–Iceland relations
  • Bulgaria has a consular liaison section in the Danish Embassy in Reykjavik.[185]
  • Both countries are members of NATO.[147]
 Ireland 11 July 1990[186] See Bulgaria–Ireland relations
 Italy 25 July 1879[189] See Bulgaria–Italy relations
 Kosovo 27 May 2008[44] See Bulgaria–Kosovo relations
 Latvia 24 May 1922[195] See Bulgaria–Latvia relations
  • Bulgaria is represented in Latvia through its Warsaw embassy in Poland and through an honorary consulate in Riga.[196]
  • Latvia is represented in Bulgaria through its Warsaw embassy in Poland and through an honorary consulate in Sofia.[197]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
 Liechtenstein 19 November 1993[198] See Bulgaria–Liechtenstein relations
 Lithuania 3 November 1924[199] See Bulgaria–Lithuania relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Vilnius.[200]
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Sofia.[201]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Bulgaria (in Lithuanian only)
 Luxembourg 1956[202] See Bulgaria–Luxembourg relations
 Malta 10 September 1971[203] See Bulgaria–Malta relations
 Moldova 5 February 1992[206] See Bulgaria–Moldova relations
  • Since 1992, Bulgaria has an embassy in Chişinău.[207]
  • Moldova has an embassy in Sofia.
 Monaco 14 February 2008[208] See Bulgaria–Monaco relations
 Montenegro 2 August 2006[209] See Bulgaria–Montenegro relations
  • Bulgaria recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 12, 2006.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.[147]
  • Bulgarian embassy in Podgorica (in Bulgarian only)
 Netherlands 1909[210] See Bulgaria–Netherlands relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in The Hague.[211]
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Sofia.[212]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria (in Dutch only)[permanent dead link]
 North Macedonia 15 January 1992[213] See Bulgaria–North Macedonia relations
  • Bulgaria was the first country to recognize North Macedonia and the second to open an embassy.
  • The rules governing good neighbourly relations agreed between Bulgaria and the Republic of North Macedonia were set in the Joint Declaration of February 22, 1999, reaffirmed by a joint memorandum signed on January 22, 2008, in Sofia.[214]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.[147]
 Norway 20 August 1906[215] See Bulgaria–Norway relations
  • Since April 1918, Bulgaria has an embassy in Oslo.[216]
  • Norway is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.[147]
 Poland 30 December 1918[217] See Bulgaria–Poland relations
 Portugal 1893[220] See Bulgaria–Portugal relations
  • Relations were severed in 1945 and were restored on June 24, 1974.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Lisbon.[221]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Sofia.[222]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
 Romania See Bulgaria–Romania relations

Bulgarian relations with Romania featured regular official visits by the two presidents. Romanian-Bulgarian relations are developing "very intensively" because of EU accession, since Romania and Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007. Romania and Bulgaria have never had any serious conflicts, other than a territorial dispute over the Dobruja region in 1913–1940, now largely forgotten. Vidin and Calafat have perhaps the closest relations of any towns along this lower section of the Danube. There is a regular ferry service, so locals here have regular interchange with their neighbors across the border.

  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Sofia.
 Russia 7 July 1879[223] See Bulgaria–Russia relations
 San Marino 17 April 2000[226] See Bulgaria–San Marino relations
 Serbia 18 January 1879[227][full citation needed] See Bulgaria–Serbia relations
 Slovakia 1 January 1993[228] See Bulgaria–Slovakia relations
  • Bulgaria recognized Slovakia on December 23, 1992.
  • Since February 1994, Bulgaria has an embassy in Bratislava.[229]
  • Since June 1994, Slovakia has an embassy in Sofia.[230]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
 Slovenia 1992[231] See Bulgaria–Slovenia relations
 Spain 8 May 1910[234] See Bulgaria–Spain relations
  • Relations were severed in 1946 and they were restored at the level of consular office and Trade Mission in 1970.
  • Since January 27, 1970, the diplomatic relations were elevated to embassy-level.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Madrid and an honorary consulate in Barcelona.[235]
  • Spain has an embassy in Sofia.[236]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[149][147]
  • Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria (in Spanish only)
 Sweden 6 June 1914[237] See Bulgaria–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 14 November 1916[240] See Bulgaria–Switzerland relations
  • Switzerland officially recognized Bulgaria on November 28, 1879.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Bern.[241]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Sofia.[242]
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
 Turkey 18 October 1925[136] See Turkey in Asia Above
 Ukraine 13 December 1991[243] See Bulgaria–Ukraine relations

Ukrainian-Bulgarian relations are characterized by a constant active political dialogue at the highest level. Ukraine and Bulgaria actively cooperate and provide mutual support within the framework of regional and international organizations, such as the BSEC, the Central European Initiative, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the United Nations.

Bulgaria, has confirmed readiness to promote the European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. It occupies an important place in the Balkan direction of Ukraine's foreign policy interests, which is due to the geopolitical position of the country in the Balkans, the proximity of interests in the Black Sea and the Danube region. Ukraine and Bulgaria are united by ethnic, linguistic and religious components, traditional economic, trade and cultural-historical ties.

Bulgaria is an important market for Ukrainian products and the largest trade and economic partner of Ukraine in the Balkan region. In 2017, foreign trade between Ukraine and Bulgaria demonstrated growth dynamics.

 United Kingdom 23 July 1879[246] See Bulgaria–United Kingdom relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in London.[247]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Sofia.[248]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.[147]
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Bulgaria

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 5 April 1972[249]
  • Australia is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains an honorary consulate in Sofia.[250]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Canberra.[251]
 New Zealand 9 October 1984[252]
  • Bulgaria is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

See also

References

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  181. ^ "German embassy in Sofia (in German and Bulgarian only)". Archived from the original on 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  182. ^ "МВнР :: Република Гърция". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  183. ^ "МВнР :: Ватикана - Светият престол". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  184. ^ "МВнР :: Унгария". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  185. ^ a b "МВнР :: Република Исландия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  186. ^ "МВнР :: Ирландия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  187. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  188. ^ "Bulgaria - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". www.embassyofireland.bg.
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  190. ^ "Bulgarian embassy in Rome".
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  192. ^ Italian embassy in Sofia
  193. ^ "Sofia Officially Recognizes Pristina Sovereignty". novinite.com. 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  194. ^ "Bulgaria to Issue Visas in Pristina", BalkanInsight.com, 27 May 2008. Link accessed 2008-05-27.
  195. ^ "МВнР :: Латвия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  196. ^ "Bulgarian Foreign Ministry: direction of the Bulgarian honorary consulate in Riga".
  197. ^ "Bulgarian Foreign Ministry: direction of the Latvian honorary consulate in Sofia".
  198. ^ "МВнР :: Княжество Лихтенщайн". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  199. ^ курс, The Baltic Course-Балтийский. "Lithuania and Bulgaria mark 85th anniversary of diplomatic relations". The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  200. ^ "Bulgarian embassy in Vilnius".
  201. ^ "Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs".
  202. ^ "МВнР :: Люксембург". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  203. ^ "MFA :: Republic of Malta". www.mfa.bg. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  204. ^ "Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  205. ^ "Maltese Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  206. ^ "Moldova, Bulgaria mark 25th anniversary of diplomatic relations' establishment". www.moldpres.md. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  207. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  208. ^ "МВнР :: Княжество Монако". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  209. ^ "Bulgaria - Diplomatic Missions to Montenegro and visa regimes for citizens of Montenegro". Government of Montenegro. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  210. ^ "МВнР :: Нидерландия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  211. ^ Bulgarian embassy The Hague Archived June 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  212. ^ Dutch embassy Sofia Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  213. ^ "МВнР :: Република Северна Македония". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  214. ^ Bulgarian Policies on the Republic of North Macedonia: Recommendations on the development of good neighbourly relations following Bulgaria’s accession to the EU and in the context of NATO and EU enlargement in the Western Balkans. Sofia: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2008. 80 pp. (Trilingual publication in Bulgarian, Macedonian and English) ISBN 978-954-92032-2-6
  215. ^ "МВнР :: Кралство Норвегия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  216. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  217. ^ "МВнР :: Република Полша". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  218. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  219. ^ "Ambasada RP w Sofii". www.polamba-bg.org.
  220. ^ "МВнР :: Португалска република". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  221. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  222. ^ "Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Portuguese embassy in Sofia".[permanent dead link]
  223. ^ "How many Times were Diplomatic Relations between Russia and Bulgaria Severed - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency". www.novinite.com. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
  224. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  225. ^ "Russian embassy in Sofia". Archived from the original on 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  226. ^ "Rapporti bilaterali della Repubblica di San Marino" (in Italian). Retrieved 15 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  227. ^ "МВнР :: Република Сърбия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  228. ^ "МВнР :: Словашка република". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  229. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  230. ^ Slovakia has an embassy in Sofia Archived 2012-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
  231. ^ "МВнР :: Република Словения". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  232. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  233. ^ Slovenian Foreign Ministry: directions of diplomatic representation of both countries Archived 2007-11-26 at the Wayback Machine
  234. ^ "Bulgaria and Spain mark 110 years of diplomatic relations". bnr.bg. Retrieved 2020-06-01.
  235. ^ "Bulgarian embassy in Madrid". Archived from the original on 2009-08-23. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  236. ^ Spanish embassy in Sofia (in Bulgarian and Spanish only) Archived 2008-04-23 at the Wayback Machine
  237. ^ "МВнР :: Кралство Швеция". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  238. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  239. ^ "Swedish embassy in Sofia". Archived from the original on 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  240. ^ "МВнР :: Конфедерация Швейцария". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  241. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  242. ^ "Schweizerische Botschaft in Bulgarien". www.eda.admin.ch.
  243. ^ "МВнР :: Украйна". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  244. ^ "Министерство на външните работи". Министерство на външните работи.
  245. ^ "Ukraine s Honorary Consulate to open in Burgas".
  246. ^ "МВнР :: Обединено кралство Великобритания и Северна Ирландия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  247. ^ Bulgarian embassy in London
  248. ^ "British embassy in Sofia". Archived from the original on 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  249. ^ "МВнР :: Австралия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  250. ^ "Bulgaria". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  251. ^ "The Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria in Canberra". www.bulgaria.org.au.
  252. ^ "МВнР :: Нова Зеландия". www.mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2022-07-22.

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