Libya–European Union relations

Bilateral relations
Libya–European Union relations relations
Map indicating locations of Libya and European Union

Libya

European Union

Libya–European Union relations are the foreign relations between the country of Libya and the European Union.[1]

Prior to the 2011 Libyan civil war, the EU and Libya were negotiating a cooperation agreement which has now been frozen.[2] The EU worked to apply sanctions over the Libyan conflict, provide aid and some members participated in military action.[3]

History of European-Libyan Affairs

Libya has had a long and tumultuous relationship with mainland Europe.

The Greek, Persian, Carthaginian, and Roman Empires

In 630 BCE, the Ancient Greeks colonized Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene.[4] Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as Cyrenaica. The Greeks of the Pentapolis resisted encroachments by the Ancient Egyptians from the East, as well as by the Carthaginians from the West, but in 525 BCE the Persian army of Cambyses II overran Cyrenaica, which for the next two centuries remained under Persian or Egyptian rule. Alexander was greeted by the Greeks when he entered Cyrenaica in 331 BCE, and Eastern Libya again fell under the control of the Greeks, this time as part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. The Carthaginian Empire rose to power to hold sway over the coast of much of modern-day Libya, but was later enveloped into the Roman Empire after the Punic Wars.

The Ottoman Empire and Fascist Italy

Libya was part of the Ottoman Empire, which fell apart following the events of WWI. From 1912 to 1943, Libya was controlled by Italy. Italy lost the land during the North African Campaign of WWII. The United Kingdom and France administered the region until on 24 December 1951, Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya.

The Second Libyan Civil War and the European Migrant Crisis

Prior to the 2011 Libyan civil war, the EU and Libya were negotiating a cooperation agreement which has now been frozen.[5] The EU worked to apply sanctions over the Libyan conflict, provide aid and some members participated in military action.[6] The ongoing Second Libyan Civil War and European Migrant Crisis are causing tensions on both sides of the Mediterranean.

The Malta Declaration

The Malta Declaration (EU) is a declaration made on 3 February 2017 during the European migrant crisis by leaders of the European Union in Malta, which held the presidency at the time, that focuses on measures to stem the flow of immigration from Libya to Italy and the EU.[7][8]

The EU is closely working with Libya on the safety of migrants with such actions as Operation Sophia and the training of Libyan Coast Guards.[9]

References

  1. ^ Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a largely intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree.[citation needed] However, with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are at times[vague] attempts to speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy personifies this role.
  2. ^ Libya, European Commission
  3. ^ Developments in Libya: an overview of the EU's response, European Commission
  4. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1987), "Cyrenaica and the Greeks", U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 July 2006.
  5. ^ Libya, European Commission
  6. ^ Developments in Libya: an overview of the EU's response, European Commission
  7. ^ "Informal meeting of EU heads of state or government, 03/02/2017 - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  8. ^ Kanter, James (3 February 2017). "E.U. Vows to Slow Migration on Sea Route That Claimed Thousands of Lives". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  9. ^ "Migration: Mogherini pushes Valletta Action Plan forward and concludes first training of Libyan coastguards | EU Neighbours". www.euneighbours.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Bilateral relations
Africa
Insignia of the European External Action Service.svg
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Former
General
  • †= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union members.
Multilateral relations and initiatives
Organisations
Initiatives
Administration and policies
Foreign and Security Policy
Administration
Funding
  • v
  • t
  • e
Leadership
European Union
Arms of CEUMC
Structure
External Action Service
Agencies
Council preparatory bodies
European Commission bodies
Policies
Other
Equipment
Decorations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Multinational
Union level
Battlegroups
Other
Provided through
TEU Article 42.3
  • v
  • t
  • e
Military operations
[Ground] force (EUFOR)
Naval force (EUNAVFOR)
Military missions
Training mission (EUTM)
Civilian missions
Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
Rule of law mission (EULEX)
Monitoring mission (EUMM)
Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
  • RCA (2015–2016)
Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
  • South Sudan (2013–2014)
Mission in support of the
security sector reform (EUSSR)
  • Guinea-Bissau (2008–2010)
Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
  • Iraq (2015–2013)
  • Georgia (2004–2005)
Mission to provide advice and assistance
for security sector reform (EUSEC)
  • RD Congo (2005–2016)
Advisory mission (EUAM)
  • Ukraine (2014–present)
  • Iraq (2017–present)
Police advisory team (EUPAT)
  • FYROM (2005–2006)
Other
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action (2005–2007)
  • PAMECA (2002–present)
  • Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987–1988)
  • Police and customs operation with OSCE on the Danube (1993–1996)
  • Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994–1996)
  • Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania (MAPE, 1997–2001)
  • Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia (WEUDAM, 1999–2001)
  • General security surveillance mission in Kosovo (1998–1999)
1: Conducted by the Western European Union prior to 2003. These missions were not named using conventional prefixes such as EUFOR, EUNAVFOR etc.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western Union (1948–1951/1954) Flag of the Western Union.svg
European Defence Community (plan that failed in 1954)
Western European Union (1954–2011) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg Flag of the Western European Union.svg
European Union (1992–present) Flag of Europe.svg
Period before the union had defence structures (1993–1999)
European Security and Defence Policy (1999–2009)
Common Security and Defence Policy (2009–present)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Militaries of the European Union
Austrian Armed Forces


Map of Southeast Asia
Belgian Armed Forces
Bulgarian Armed Forces
Armed Forces of Croatia
Cypriot National Guard
Army of the Czech Republic
Danish Defence
Estonian Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
French Armed Forces
Bundeswehr
Hellenic Armed Forces
Hungarian Defence Forces
Irish Defence Forces
Italian Armed Forces
Latvian National Armed Forces
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Luxembourg Army
Armed Forces of Malta
Netherlands Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
Portuguese Armed Forces
Romanian Armed Forces
Slovak Armed Forces
Slovenian Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
EU member states
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France
Germany Germany
Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands
Poland Poland
Portugal Portugal
Romania Romania
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain
Sweden Sweden
European Union portal · War portal