Murji'ah

Early Islamic sect withholding judgement of sinners or charges of disbelief
Part of a series on Islam
AqidahSilhouette of a mosque
  • Shahada
  • Salah
  • Sawm
  • Zakat
  • Hajj
Six articles of belief

Sunni theological traditions

  • Traditionalist
    • Hanbalis1
    • Ahl al-Hadith
  • Ilm al-Kalam
Theology of Twelvers4

Ancillaries of the Faith

Seven pillars of Ismailism5

  • Walayah
  • Tawhid
  • Salah
  • Zakat
  • Sawm
  • Hajj
  • Jihad

Other Shia concepts of Aqidah

  • Imamate
  • Batin
  • Murji'ah
    • Karramiyya
  • Mu'attila
    • Jabriyyah6
  • Muhakkima
    • Khawarij7
    • Ibadi8
  • Taṣawwuf9
  • Qadariyah
    • Muʿtazila10
    • Alevism11
    • Quraniyya
Including:
1Salafis (Ahl-i Hadith & Wahhabis)
2Al-Ahbash & Barelvis 3Deobandis & Millî Görüş
4Alawites, Qizilbash & Bektashism; 6Jahmīyya
5Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins & Druzes
7Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat & Sūfrī 8Wahbiyyah, Nukkari & Azzabas
9Mevlevis, Süleymancıs & various Ṭarīqah
10Bahshamiyya, Bishriyya & Ikhshîdiyya
11Bektashis & Qalandaris
 Islam portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Murji'ah (Arabic: المرجئة, English: "Those Who Postpone"), also known as Murji'as or Murji'ites, were an early Islamic sect. Murji'ah held the opinion that God alone has the right to judge whether or not a Muslim has become an apostate. Consequently Muslims should practice postponement (ʾirjāʾ) of judgment on committers of major sins and not make charges of disbelief (’takfir’) or punish accordingly anyone who has professed Islam to be their faith. They also believed that good deeds or omission of them do not affect a person's faith, and a person who did no other act of obedience would not be punished in the afterlife as long as they held onto pure faith. They used to say that "disobedience does not harm faith as good deeds do not help with disbelief."[1] The members of the Murjite Order continue to adhere to this school. [2]

The emergence

During the early centuries of Islam, Muslim thought encountered a multitude of influences from various ethnic and philosophical groups that it absorbed.

The Murji'ah emerged as a theological school that was opposed to the Kharijites on questions related to early controversies regarding sin and definitions of what is a true Muslim.

The Khawarij believed that committing a sin amounted to leaving Islam and that serious sinners should be ousted from the community and that jihād (“holy war”) should be declared on them.

The Murji'ah reacted with the opposite extreme, that deeds not only do not result in leaving Islam, but do not affect one's faith at all.[1] They advocated the idea of deferring judgment of other peoples' belief. The word Murjiah itself means "one who postpones" in Arabic.[2] They urged unity among Muslims, and their conciliatory principles made them popular.

Khariji doctrine had led the adherents of the sect to revolt against the Umayyads, whom they regarded as corrupt and unlawful rulers whereas Murjite doctrine held that since only God has the authority to judge who is a true Muslim and who is not, Muslims should consider all other Muslims as part of the community.[3] This theology promoted tolerance of Umayyads and converts to Islam who appeared halfhearted in their obedience.[3]

Beliefs on major sin

In another contrast to the Kharijites, who believed that committing a major sin would render a person non-Muslim, Murjites considered genuine belief in and submission to God to be more important than acts of piety and good works. They believed Muslims committing major sins would remain Muslim and be eligible for paradise if they remained faithful.[4] Conversely, those engaging in shirk cannot benefit salvation from performing good acts.[5] Thus, faith is paramount.

Extreme Murji'ites, such as Jahm ibn Ṣafwān (d. ad 746), regarded faith as purely an inward conviction, thus allowing a Muslim outwardly to profess other religions and remain a Muslim, since only God could determine the true nature of his faith.

The Murji'ah thesis can be summed up as follows: 'sin does not do any injury where there is iman (belief), just as acts of obedience are of no use where there is kufr (disbelief).[6]

The Murji'ah were also in stark contrast to orthodox positions, (including those of the Maturidi and Ash'ari schools of theology), which can be summarised by Ibn Hazm's formulation: "The people of Sunnah and Tradition and the Fuqaha (jurists) hold that a man who has committed a grave sin is still a Believer (only, he is not any longer a perfect Believer), he is a Fasiq, imperfect in Belief. A grave sinner is still a Believer in his assent and verbal confessions but Fasiq in his 'work'.[6]

Legacy

Abu Hanifa, founder of the Hanafi (c. 699–767) school of Sunni jurisprudence, was often accused of holding Murji'ah beliefs[1], however, he was later cleared of these accusations by other Hanafis such as Tahawi through his foundational Sunni text, Al-'Aqida al-Tahawiyya; a popular exposition of Sunni Muslim doctrine.

  • Islamic theology
  • Al-Harith ibn Surayj
  • Khawarij

Bibliography

  • Ibn Taymīyah, Abī al-ʻAbbās Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥalīm. al-Fatāwá.
  • Fakhry, Majid (2004). A History of Islamic Philosophy, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13221-2.
  • Izutsu, Toshihiko (2001). Concept of Belief in Islamic Theology. The Other Press. ISBN 983-9154-70-2.

References

  1. ^ "Murjiʾah, ISLAMIC SECT". britannica. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Royal House of Tahir Buruj". 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Fields
Aqidah
  • Eschatology
  • Ethics
  • Kalam
Philosophy
Science
Sufism
  • Cosmology
  • Metaphysics
  • Philosophy
Theologians
Ash'ari
(Al-Ash'ari)
Early Sunni
  • Abū Ḥanīfah al-Nu'mān ibn Thābit (Hanafiyah)
  • Malik ibn Anas (Maliki)
  • Al-Shafi‘i (Shafi‘i)
Maturidi
(Al-Maturidi)
  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi
  • Al-Sarakhsi
  • Al-Bazdawi
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi
  • Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi
  • Abu Ishaq al-Saffar al-Bukhari
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi
  • 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti
  • Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni
  • Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi
  • Siraj al-Din al-Ushi
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi
  • Khidr Bey
  • Ibn Kemal
  • Ali Qushji
  • Ali al-Qari
  • Al-Maydani
  • Ahmad Sirhindi
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
  • Shah Abdul Aziz
  • Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
  • Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi
  • Rahmatullah Kairanawi
  • Murtada al-Zabidi
  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra
  • Kanthapuram A. P. Aboobacker Musliyar
  • Rumi
Mu'attila
  • Al-Ja'd ibn Dirham
    • Mu'jbira
  • Abū Muḥrīz Jahm ibn Ṣafwān ar-Rāsibī as-Samarqāndī at-Tirmidhī
    • Jahmīyya
      • Abū Abdirrahmān Bishr ibn Ghiyāth ibn Abī Karīma al-Marīsī al-Baghdādī
Mu'jassimā
  • Abu’l-Hassan Muqātil ibn Sulaymān ibn Bashīr al-Azdī al-Balkhī (Muqātilīyya)
  • Abū Muḥāmmad (Abū’l-Hākem) Heshām ibn Sālem al-Jawālikī al-Juzjanī al-Kūfī
    • Jawālikīyya
    • Rum Abdals
  • Ibn Karram (Karramiyya)
Murji'ah
  • Abū Marwān Gaylān ibn Mūslīm ad-Dimashqī an-Nabati al-Qībtī (Murjī-Qadariyah)
Mu'tazila
(Wasil ibn 'Ata')
  • Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār ibn Hāni’ an-Nazzām (Nazzāmīyya)
  • Abū Bakr Abdurrahmān ibn Kaysān al-Asāmm
  • Abū Mūsā Isā ibn Subeyh (Sabīh) al-Murdār al-Bāsrī (Murdārīyya)
  • Hīshām ibn Amr al-Fuwātī ash-Shaybānī (Hīshāmīyya)
  • Abū Sahl Abbād ibn Sulaimān (Salmān) as-Sāymarī
  • Abū Alī Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb ibn Sallām al-Jubbā'ī (Jubbāīyya)
  • Abū’l-Hūsayn Abdūrrāhīm ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Uthmān al-Hayyāt (Hayyātīyya)
  • Ja'far ibn Harb
  • Ja'far ibn Mūbassīr
  • Abū Uthmān Amr ibn Bhār ibn Māhbūb al-Jāhiz al-Kinānī (Jāhizīyya)
  • Al-Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar
    • Abu al-Husayn al-Basri
  • Al-Zamakhshari
  • Amr ibn Ubayd
  • Ibn Abi'l-Hadid
  • Sahib ibn Abbad
  • Abū Amr Ḍirār ibn Amr al-Gatafānī al-Kūfī (Ḍirārīyya)
Najjārīyya
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh al-Husayn ibn Muḥāmmad ibn ʿAbdillāh an-Najjār ar-Rāzī
    • Abū Amr (Abū Yahyā) Hāfs al-Fard
    • Muḥāmmad ibn ʿĪsā (Burgūsīyya)
    • Abū ʿAbdallāh Ibnū’z-Zā‘farānī (Zā‘farānīyya)
    • Mustadrakīyya
Salafi Theologians
  • Ibn Taymiyyah
  • Ibnul Qayyim
  • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
    • Wahhabism
  • Al-Shawkani
  • Rashid Rida
  • Bin Baz
  • Ibn al-Uthaymeen
  • Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i
  • Al-Albani
  • Saleh Al-Fawzan
  • Rabee al-Madkhali
    • Madkhalism
  • Syed Nazeer Husain
    • Ahl-i Hadith
  • Siddiq Hasan Khan
  • Zubair Ali Zai
  • Safar Al-Hawali
    • Sahwa movement
  • Salman al-Ouda
  • Osama bin Laden
    • Salafi Jihadism
  • Ahmad ibn Umar al-Hazimi
    • Hazimism
  • Yasir Qadhi
    • Post-Salafism
Shi’a-Imamiyyah
(Wilayat al-faqih)
  • The Twelve Imams
    • Ali
    • Hasan ibn Ali
    • Husayn ibn Ali
    • Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
    • Muhammad al-Baqir
    • Ja'far al-Sadiq
    • Musa al-Kadhim
    • Ali al-Ridha
    • Muhammad al-Jawad
    • Ali al-Hadi
    • Hasan al-Askari
    • Muhammad al-Mahdi
  • Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
  • Sharif al-Murtaza
  • Shaykh Tusi
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
  • Allamah Al-Hilli
  • Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi
  • Zurarah ibn A'yan
  • Hisham ibn Hakam
  • Agha Zia ol Din Araghi
  • Ja'far Sobhani
  • Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi’a-Ismailiyyah
(Ibn Maymūn)
Key books
Sunni books
  • Asas al-Taqdis
  • Al-Baz al-Ashhab
  • Al-Farq bayn al-Firaq
  • Al-Milal wa al-Nihal
  • Al-Irshad
  • Al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah
  • Al-Sawad al-A'zam
  • Kitab al-Tawhid
  • Tabsirat al-Adilla
  • Masnavi
  • Fihi Ma Fihi
  • Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi
  • The Moderation in Belief
Shia books
Independent
Ahl us-
Sunnah
wa’l-
Jama’ah
Ahl al-Hadith
(Traditionalism)
Ahl ar-Ra'y
(Ilm al-Kalam)
  • Ashʿari
    • Malikis
    • Shafi'is
      • Abdullah al-Harari – Al-Ahbash
  • Maturidi
    • Hanafis
      • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi / Ahmed Raza Khan – Barelvi
      • Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi / Rashid Ahmad Gangohi – Deobandi
      • Necmettin Erbakan – Millî Görüş
Shia Islam
Zaydi Shi'a
Imami
Mahdiist
Shi'ite
Sects in
Islam
Imami
Twelver
  • Theology of Twelvers
    • Ja'fari
      • Akhbari
      • Usuli
    • Shaykhism
  • Qizilbash
  • Ghulat
  • Baktāshism
Imami
Isma'ilism
  • Fathite
    • Abdullah al-Aftah
  • Batiniyyah
    • Hamdan Qarmat – Sevener Qarmatians
    • Hamza / Baha al-Din al-Muqtana / ad-Darazi – Druzes
  • Fatimids
    • Musta'li
      • Tayyibi
        • Alavi
        • Dawoodi
        • Sulaymani
      • Hafizi
    • Nasir Khusraw al-Qubadiani – Badakhshan Alevism
  • Nizari
    • Hassan-i Sabbah – Assassins
    • Aga Khans – Nizaris / Khojas
    • Pir Sadardin – Satpanth
Kaysanites
Shia
Other Mahdiists
  • An-Nafs Az-Zakiyyah
  • Hurufiyya
    • Maḥmūd Pasīkhānī – Nuktawiyya
  • Shayki
  • Tawussite Shia
    • ʿAjlan ibn Nawus
  • Waqifite Shia
Muhakkima
(Arbitration)
Kharijites
  • Ajardi
    • Abd al-Karīm ibn Adjrād
    • Maymunīyyah
    • Sa'labīyyah
  • Azariqa
    • Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hānafī al-Handhalī
  • Bayhasīyyah
    • Abu Bayhas al-Hāytham ibn Jābir
  • Najdat
    • Najdah ibn 'Amir al-Hānafī
  • Sufri
    • Abu Qurra
    • Abū Yazīd Mukhallad ibn Kayrād al-Nukkari
Ibadism
Murji'ah
(Hasan ibn
Muḥāmmad
ibn al-
Hanafiyyah)
Karrāmīyya
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-Sijjī
    • ʿĀbidīyya (ʿUthmān al-ʿĀbid)
    • Dhīmmīyya
    • Hakāiqīyya
    • Haisamīyya (Abū ʿAbdallāh Muhammad ibn al-Haisam)
    • Hīdīyya (Hīd ibn Saif)
    • Ishāqīyya (Abū Yaʿqūb Ishāq ibn Mahmashādh)
    • Maʿīyya
    • Muhājirīyya (Ibrāhīm ibn Muhājir)
    • Nūnīyya
    • Razīnīyya
    • Sauwāqīyya
    • Sūramīyya
    • Tarā'ifīyya (Ahmad ibn ʿAbdūs at-Tarā'ifī)
    • Tūnīyya (Abū Bakr ibn ʿAbdallāh)
    • Wāhidīyya
    • Zarībīyya
Other sects
  • Gaylānīyya
    • Gaylān ibn Marwān
  • Yūnusīyya
    • Yūnus ibn Awn an-Namīrī
  • Gassānīyya
    • Gassān al-Kūfī
  • Tūmanīyya
    • Abū Muāz at-Tūmanī
  • Sawbānīyya
    • Abū Sawbān al-Murjī
  • Sālehīyya
    • Sāleh ibn Umar
  • Shamrīyya
    • Abū Shamr
  • Ubaydīyya
    • Ubayd al-Mūktaib
  • Ziyādīyya
    • Muhammad ibn Ziyād al-Kūfī
Other Murjīs
  • Al-Harith ibn Surayj
  • Sa'id ibn Jubayr
  • Hammād ibn Abū Sūlaimān
  • Muhārīb ibn Dithār
  • Sābit Kutna
  • Awn ibn Abdullāh
  • Mūsā ibn Abū Kasīr
  • Umar ibn Zar
  • Salm ibn Sālem
  • Hālaf ibn Ayyūb
  • Ibrāhim ibn Yousūf
  • Nusayr ibn Yahyā
  • Ahmad ibn Hārb
  • Amr ibn Murrah
Mu'shabbiha
Tamsīl
  • Jawārībīyya
    • Dāwūd al-Jawāribî
  • Hāshwīyya
  • Hulmānīyya
    • Abū Hulmān al-Fārisī ad-Dimashqī
    • Kalandars
    • Bārāq Bābā
Tasjīm
  • Khāttabīyya
    • Bāzīghīyya
      • Bāzīgh ibn Mūsā
    • Muʿāmmarīyya
      • Muʿāmmar ibn Ahmar
    • ʿIjlīyya/Umayrīyya
      • Umayr ibn Bayān al-ʿIjlī
    • Mufāddālīyya
      • Mufāddāl ibn Umār as-Sāyrāfī
    • Ghurābīyya
  • Mānsūrīyya
    • Abū Mānsūr al-ʿIjlī
  • Mughīrīyya
    • Abū Abdillāh Mugīre ibn Sāīd al-ʿIjlī el-Bajalī
  • Mukhāmmīsa
    • Namiriya
    • ‘Ulyanīyya/'Alyaīyya
  • Saba'īyya
Qadariyah
(Ma'bad
al-Juhani)
Alevism
  • Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar – Malamatiyya / Qalandariyya
  • Baba Ishak – Babai revolt
  • Balım Sultan – Bektashi Order
  • Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu – Rifa`i / Galibi Order
Muʿtazila
(Rationalism)
  • Mā’marīyya
  • Bahshamiyya
    • Abū Hāshīm Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'ī
  • Huzaylīyya
    • Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-Abdī al-Bāsrī
      • Abū Ma‘n Sūmāma ibn Ashras an-Nūmayrī al-Bāsrī al-Baghdādī
  • Ikhshīdiyya
  • Nazzāmīyya
    • Ali al-Aswarī
    • Abū Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn Shabīb al-Basrī
    • Hābītīyya
      • Ahmad ibn Hābīt
  • Sumamīyya
    • Sumāma ibn Ashras
  • Kā‘bīyya
    • Abū’l-Kāsīm Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn Māhmūd al-Balhī al-Kā‘bī
Quranism
  • Ahle Qur'an
  • Kala Kato
  • Tolu-e-Islam
    • Muhammad Iqbal
    • Ghulam Ahmed Pervez
  • United Submitters International
Independent
Muslim
beliefs
Messianism
Modernism
  • Modernist Salafism
    • Muhammad Abduh
    • Muhammad Asad
    • Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani
    • Rashid Rida
    • Other Islamic modernists
Taṣawwuf
Other beliefs
  • Sadaqah
  • Sunnah
  • Taqwa
  • Tawakkul
  • Tewafuq
  • Thawab
  • v
  • t
  • e
Theology
Conceptions of God
Theism
Forms
  • Deism
  • Dystheism
  • Henotheism
  • Hermeticism
  • Kathenotheism
  • Nontheism
  • Monolatry
  • Monotheism
    • Urmonotheismus
  • Mysticism
  • Panentheism
  • Pandeism
  • Pantheism
  • Polydeism
  • Polytheism
  • Spiritualism
  • Theistic finitism
  • Theopanism
Concepts
  • Deity
  • Divinity
  • Gender of God and gods
    • Goddess
  • Numen
Singular god
theologies
By faith
Concepts
  • Absolute
  • Brahman
  • Emanationism
  • Logos
  • Supreme Being
God as
  • Sustainer
  • Time
Trinitarianism
Eschatology
By religion
  • Buddhist
  • Christian
  • Hindu
  • Islamic
  • Jewish
  • Taoist
  • Zoroastrian
Feminist
  • Buddhism
  • Christianity
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Judaism
  • Mormonism
  • Goddesses
Other concepts
Names of God in
By faith
Christian
  • History
  • Outline
  • Biblical canon
  • Glossary
  • Paterology
  • Christology
  • Pneumatology
  • Cosmology
  • Ecclesiology
  • Ethics
  • Hamartiology
  • Messianism
  • Philosophy
  • Political
  • Practical
  • Public
  • Sophiology
  • Soteriology
Hindu
  • Ayyavazhi theology
  • Krishnology
Islamic
  • Oneness of God
  • Prophets
  • Holy Scriptures
  • Angels
  • Predestination
  • Last Judgment
Jewish
  • Abrahamic prophecy
  • Aggadah
  • Denominations
  • Kabbalah
  • Philosophy
Pagan
Religion portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Islam topics
Outline of Islam
Beliefs
  • God in Islam
  • Tawhid
  • Muhammad
    • In Islam
  • Prophets of Islam
  • Angels
  • Revelation
  • Qadar
  • Judgement Day
Five Pillars
  • Shahada
  • Salah
  • Sawm
  • Zakat
  • Hajj
  • History
  • Leaders
Religious texts
  • Quran
  • Hadith
  • Tafsir
  • Seerah
  • Story of Prophets
Denominations
  • Sunni
    • Ash'ari, Maturidi and Hanbali
  • Sufi
  • Salafi
  • Shia
    • Twelver Shia
    • Isma'ilism
    • Alawites
    • Alevism
      • Bektashi Alevism
    • Zaidiyyah
  • Ibadi
  • Nation of Islam
  • Ahmadiyya
  • Quranism
  • Non-denominational
  • Life
  • Culture
  • Animals
  • Art
  • Calendar
  • Children
  • Clothing
  • Flags
  • Holidays
  • Mosques
  • Madrasas
  • Moral teachings
  • Music
  • Philosophy
  • Political aspects
  • Qurbani
  • Science
  • Social welfare
  • Women
  • LGBT
  • Islam by country
  • Law
  • Jurisprudence
Economics
Hygiene
  • Ghusl
  • Miswak
  • Najis
  • Tayammum
  • Toilet
  • Wudu
  • Family
  • Marriage
  • Sex
  • Haya
  • Marriage contract
  • Mahr
  • Mahram
  • Nikah
  • Nikah mut'ah
  • Zina
Other aspects
  • Baligh
  • Cleanliness
  • Criminal
  • Dhabiĥa
  • Dhimmi
  • Divorce
  • Diet
  • Ethics
  • Etiquette
  • Gambling
  • Gender segregation
  • Honorifics
  • Hudud
  • Inheritance
  • Jizya
  • Leadership
  • Ma malakat aymanukum
  • Military
  • Slavery
  • Sources of law
  • Theological
    • kalam
  • Schools of islamic jurisprudence
 Islamic studies
Arts
  • Arabesque
  • Architecture
  • Calligraphy
  • Carpets
  • Gardens
  • Geometric patterns
  • Music
  • Pottery
Medieval science
Philosophy
  • Early
  • Contemporary
  • Eschatology
  • Theological
Other areas
 Other
Other religions
Apostasy
Related topics
  •  Islam portal
  • Category